Monday, May 25, 2020

Funding Of Funding For Public Hospitals Essay - 1607 Words

6.2.1 Funding Policy Framework in Australia Funding for public hospitals in Australia is mainly based on activity, known as Activity Based Funding (ABF). This is based on the actual quantity of services delivered to patients and aims to provide revenue based on the ‘efficient’ cost of delivering the services. Under this arrangement, the financial contribution made by the Commonwealth and the States/Territories for public hospitals’ activities and services is based on Australia DRG classifications, price weight and the National Efficient Price (NEP) which is determined by IPHA. The NEP is a benchmark to give government guidance about the level of contributions that meet the average cost of acute care service provision in Australian public hospitals. The price is expressed as dollars per NWAU because its determination is based on the average cost of a National Weighted Activity Unit (NWAU) projection after deducting the Commonwealth expenditure for other programs. NWAU is a unit expressed to measure health service activity. The NWAU values vary with clinical complexity, intensity and cost of hospital service activities. Both commonwealth and state funding flow through National Health Funding Pool directly to providers within the Local Hospital Networks. In the case where ABF is not practicable, such as low volume of service, block funding can be made payable to the states of which the pricing is based on the National Efficient Cost (NEC) determined by the IPHA. PublicShow MoreRelatedActivity Based Funding Analysis761 Words   |  4 Pagesyou ever gone to a hospital, had a procedure and walked out of the hospital without anyone asking you to make a payment? That’s because hospital treatments in Australia are funded under Activity Based Funding (ABF) a subsidy program where hospitals receive funding for providing treatment and cost effective patient care that is, accessible and high quality (Baxter et al., 2015). What is Activity Based Funding? Activity Based Funding is defined as ‘a way of funding for hospitals whereby they get paidRead MoreProcess of Funding Health Care Services1007 Words   |  4 PagesFunding Health Care Services Name Course Professors Name Date Funding Health Care Services: The health care system is one of the major sectors that have attracted huge debates in the past few years. The polarizing debate is attributed to the fact that the health care system is fragmented and relatively inefficient. As a result, many Americans spend more on health care services than any other nation across the globe but still suffer from huge insurance, administrative waste, and uneven qualityRead MoreCase Study : Capital Coast Health Limited1431 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction In a global economy controlled largely by the dollar, even hospitals and healthcare providers struggle to find relief of being constrained by money. In May of 1997, Dr. Leo Mercer took over as the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Capital Coast Health Limited (CCH), a public healthcare facility located in New Zealand. Due to his background, Dr. Mercer was the ideal leader for this type of organization, which was currently struggling with the monetary aspect of business developmentRead MoreCommunity Health Center for the Uninsured and Undocumented Immigrants1499 Words   |  6 Pagesfrom all public benefits. This paper goes beyond these opposing assumptions and instead, proposes a strategic plan to raise and combine resources necessary to establish a health care center for the uninsured, underinsured, and illegal immigrants in Northern California. The paper covers the establishment of this center with special focus on strategic funding, funding constraints, related state and nation al regulations, health policy, resources allocation, and managerial and leadership. Funding LikeRead MoreThe Case Of The Unhealthy Hospital1533 Words   |  7 Pages In the article, The Case of the Unhealthy Hospital, written by Anthony R. Kovner, a through description of a struggling hospital, Blake Memorial Hospital, is given. This paper is a SWOT analysis, and addresses the strengths and weaknesses within the hospital, as well as opportunities and threats outside of the hospital and in the surrounding community. Although limited in abundance, there are specific strengths of Blake Memorial Hospital, such as their new CEO, Bruce Reid, and the strong communityRead MoreThe Supreme Court s Judgment On Roe And Doe842 Words   |  4 Pagestwo classifications of the public funding cases were heard and judged by the Supreme Court. Principally, these involve funding restrictions for the elective or non-therapeutic abortions and funding limitations for medically necessary or therapeutic abortions. In three connected decisions, the Supreme Court made the judgment that states do not have the constitutional or statutory obligation of funding elective abortions as well as promoting access to the abortions’ public facilities. The decisionsRead MoreFederal Funding for Public Broadcasting is a Bust Essay786 Words   |  4 Pagesspends .014% of its budget on public broadcasting. This amounted to approximately $445 million spent on funding towards public broadcasting in 2012.†(Defending Public Broadcasting Should Not Be Done Lightly) The funding was meant to help public broadcasting stations get to a state where they could support themselves on their own. However, many stations continued to take the funding even though they did not require it. Despite this, the stations that abused the funding happened to have some very educationalRead MoreWhy Are the Waiting Times in Public Hospital Emergency Departments so Long? What Contributes to This? What Are We Doing Too Address T his Problem?809 Words   |  4 PagesJasmin Charles: Essay Why are the waiting times in Public hospital emergency Departments so long? What contributes to this? What are we doing too address this problem? Waiting times in public hospital have been a big issue in the media lately. Politicians addressing these issues and using them as a bargaining point in their campaigns by making promises to fix the current health care problem by extra funding or a re-form in the health care. Public health patients featuring in the media stating howRead MoreHealth Care System in France 1715 Words   |  7 Pageshealth care, however, statistical it is untrue. American’s believe that they do have the best health care in the world. However, surgery and hospital stay is more costly in America than other countries. Hospital stay in America is usually 18,000 dollars, while in other countries spends four to five thousands dollar less (Kane, 2012). In addition to hospital stays, the US spends 900 dollars per person on just administrative costs; in France administrative costs is merely 300 dollars (Kane, 2012) Read MoreThe Australian Health Care System1347 Words   |  6 Pagesare many facets of the A ustralian Health care System. It doesn’t just include the local doctor; there are many other services that are a part of a larger network. There are many governing bodies that enable the policy, legislation, coordination and funding aspects of delivering quality services. Australia’s regulation of health services is the responsibility of government with the planning and delivery of services been shared between non-government and government sectors. The cost of the Health Care

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Body Of Knowledge Regarding Adolescent Sleep Deprivation

Sleep deprivation or the ability to get adequate sleep is a social issue. Persons in a sleep deprived state raise concerns such as performance and safety. Social issues affecting safety and performance are addressed by our society through policies, regulations, and laws. For example, the Federal Aviation Administration has strict guidelines regarding circadian rhythms and sleep for pilots (FAA, 2012, p. 5). Hundreds of thousands of adolescents in the United States face issues of reduced performance, physiological effects, psychological problems, and safety issues every school day as a result of sleep deprivation. The body of knowledge regarding adolescent sleep deprivation is growing and the surprising results are beginning to result in new thinking and policies regarding school start times. Fairfax County in Northern Virginia and its policies regarding school start times is the focus of this paper. Adolescent Sleep Deprivation in Fairfax County: Changing Times Inadequate sleep in the United States has been declared a â€Å" public health epidemic† by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (Health Epidemic, 2014, p. 1). The CDC further states that sleep deprivation may lead to â€Å"†¦difficulty performing daily tasks†¦ may contribute to †¦ hazardous outcomes. Persons experiencing sleep insufficiency are also more likely to suffer from chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, depression, and obesity, as well as from cancer, increased mortality, andShow MoreRelatedBecoming An Intellectual And Competent Nurse1600 Words   |  7 Pagesthe knowledge I have obtained from class lectures and personal experiences and apply what I have learned into my nursing practice. In March 2013, I was rushed to Overlake Hospital due to experiencing a tonic-clonic seizure during my 7:30 A.M. English class. Spending a few hours at the hospital with my parents felt like a waste of time because we were never given any details about the incident. According to a study, â€Å"Being a safety advocate implies that nurses have the skills and knowledge requiredRead MoreMultitasking Is An Efficient Method Of Increasing Productivity While Conserving Time1653 Words   |  7 Pagessecretion is decreased by fat cells, which cause an increase in hunger stimulation when an individual is sleep deprived. I now understand why sleep deprivation leads to weight gain, due to the fact that your metabolism slows down and your appetite increases. This is just one of the very many reasons why sleep is an important factor in your overall health, and to prevent irregular eating habits. The body may also â€Å"learn† the different times at which you usually eat, and will signal a hunger response toRead MoreScientific Thinking And Research Methods Essay2031 Words   |  9 PagesGroup: The experimental group was the group that was told that they had no more tasks that they needed to complete. Control Group: The control group was the group that knew they had to do the tedious task again. Independent Variable: Participants knowledge of negative stimulus. Dependent Variable: Effects of negative stimulus. Article Two: Uhr, L., Vossler, C., Uleman, J. (1962). Pattern recognition over distortions, by human subjects and by a computer simulation of a model for human form perceptionRead MoreThe Postpartum Depression ( Ppd )1466 Words   |  6 PagesSymptoms may include depressed mood or severe mood swings from the first few weeks, to up to six months after birth. While hormonal changes is just one of the many factors that contribute to PPD, sleep deprivation, lifestyle, and environment may also affect any new parent (Smith, Segal, 2016). Although our knowledge about PPD has greatly advanced in recent years, many aspects of pregnancy and the postpartum depression process are not understood and could be contributing to the high prevalence and low treatmentRead MoreEssay on Text Messaging and the Negative Effects on Teens2750 Words   |  11 Pagestomorrow and by the way you’re the greatest† is shortened and becomes â€Å"H2CU2M N BTW YTG.† Text messaging has surely given our society a quick means through which to communicate, taking out the need for capitalization, punctuation, the use and knowledge of sentence structure and the detail that make good statements great. The purpose of the shorthand text messaging style is to say as much as you need to in the shortest way possible and some educators are suggesting that this new formed languageRead MoreThe Sleeping Habits Among University Student3602 Words   |  15 PagesI. Introduction The amount of sleep is important for one’s mental and physical health, for cognitive restitution, processing and memory consolidation. In order to stay healthy, a person requires 7-8 hours of sleeping in adult age. One study reported the college students are among the most sleep-deprived age group. Sleep deprivation can have detrimental effects on daily performance, including academics and driving, and it has been linked to depressed mood and behavioural problems. The similar researchesRead MoreBehavioral Addictions : Exploring Internet Addiction1643 Words   |  7 Pagesneurotransmitters especially â€Å"the dopaminergic and endogenous opioid systems.† These men go on to state, that behavioral disorders are evidenced to be a â€Å"neuropharmacological addiction rather than a pharmacological,† meaning while no substance is added to the body, there is a definate shift in the innerbody networks that cause the reinforcement of certain behaviors, and like other ad dictions this reward pathway gets hijacked (2012). As cited by Wei-na et al., Kimberly Young, author of the book Internet Addiction:Read MoreEffects of Eating Habits2768 Words   |  12 Pages1 The problem and its BACKGROUND Introduction â€Å"Lifestyles have changed considerably over the years. With the hurried lifestyles of today’s families, quick and nutritional meals have become typical, and adolescents are adopting these unhealthy eating habits. Consequently, these adolescents pose greater risk to all aspects of development, including cognitive development. Due to the demands of the rush-day-to-day living of individuals, it is now but natural for them to prefer foods offered byRead MoreThe Overall Effects of Staying Up Late on University Students10276 Words   |  42 PagesSubmission- 20.12.2011 Acknowledgement The reason for choosing this particular topic was because of my parents, especially my mother who has taken care of me for all these years. My mother has always ensured that I have proper sleep. Hence, I ended up writing a research paper regarding sleep. I would also like to thank all my respondents for filling up my questionnaire with patience. Abstract The topic for this particular research paper is â€Å"The Overall Effects Of Staying Up Late On University Students†.Read MoreCase Study About Pneumonia10478 Words   |  42 PagesMedical-Surgical Nursing so we wanted to use this knowledge to the real-life setting and get used to it. We are willing to do this case to challenge our mind in analyzing the problem and to enhance our hidden knowledge, and also to gain new experiences which would bring new learning for the members of the group. We want to be able to achieve our objectives for this case study. * Objectives of the Case Study A. Client-Centered Objectives a. Knowledge * To understand more the disease process

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The History Channel Series Of Wild West Tech - 1497 Words

The History Channel series of Wild West Tech has a total of three seasons, each episode containing and focusing on a major aspect of the American West. This particular episode, episode nine of season one, discusses the tactics, technology, and general information of the Native Americans. It explores the weapons and tools used by the Native Americans as well as the Whites. This episode also discusses the stories, wisdoms, and traditions of Native American warriors and leaders such as Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, and Quanah Parker. A major battle mentioned and explained in the film was the battle of Little Big Horn, a battle which determined how the west was won, and/or lost. Native Americans were very skilled at turning the simplest of materials into the most effective and deadly weapons of all time, and they got a portion of their materials from trade and raiding the white settlers on their land. In the last half of the 19th Century, the Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho were fighting to keep their original homeland, from the western borders of Iowa and Missouri to the Rocky Mountains, and from the Canadian border all the way down to Mexico. In the fall of 1866, the war reached Chief Red Cloud. On the Bozeman Trail, the US Army built three forts, scaring away the buffalo on their main hunting zone. To drive the whites away, Red Cloud and his Lakota tribe used bows and arrows made from the wood of ash and hickory, and animal tendon for the bow strings. The heads of the arrows wereShow MoreRelatedThe 2nd Amendment Does Not allow Gun Control Essay3275 Words   |  14 Pages Throughout American History looking all the way back to the late 18th Century and the Revolutionary War, there have been many qualities that set America apart from all other countries. Documents like the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights bestowed upon Americans have spelled out some of these very qualities that Americans hold dear. One right that is often brought to the forefront of the argument over gun control is found within the US Constitution and the Bill of Rights. TheRead MoreAncient Nuclear Weapons (Indus Valley)7132 Words   |  29 Pagesinterest of many internet conspiracy mo ngers, and these ancient atom bombs are a mainstay of the History Channel -style â€Å"ancient ANCIENT ATOM BOMBS? ââ€"  3 mystery† documentaries. As of this writing, claims of prehistoric nuclear warfare continue to be repeated in newly-published books of â€Å"alternative† history, and are broadcast frequently on the History Channel’s Ancient Aliens: The Series, seen by more than two million people in the United States and many more worldwide. It is thereforeRead MoreCrossing the Chasm76808 Words   |  308 Pagesof HarperCollins Publishers. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 To Marie Contents PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION FOREWORD ACKNOWLEDGMENTS PART I Discovering the Chasm INTRODUCTION If Bill Gates Can Be a Billionaire 1 High-Tech Marketing Illusion 2 High-Tech Marketing Enlightenment PART II Crossing the Chasm 3 The D-Day Analogy v vi Contents 4 Target the Point of Attack 5 Assemble the Invasion Force 6 Define the Battle 7 Launch the Invasion CONCLUSION Read MoreAgriculture and Technology6502 Words   |  27 Pagesknown as agricultural science. Agriculture is also observed in certain species of ant and termite. Agriculture encompasses a wide variety of specialties and techniques, including ways to expand the lands suitable for plant raising, by digging water-channels and other forms of irrigation. Cultivation of crops on arable land and the pastoral herding of livestock on rangeland remain at the foundation of agriculture. In the past century there has been increasing concern to identify and quantify variousRead MorePepsi Marketing Plan.13402 Words   |  54 Pagesof demand and supply, price plays a very important role in customers’ initial purchase. As for the place, it has to get the right target market and has to be available when customers need. Pepsi has done a great work on the place, because their channels of distribution certainly provide their products at any market. As for the price. Based on their co rporate pricing policy, providing quality products at lowest possible price has always been one of their main concerns. Last and the most importantRead MoreThe Marketing Research of Brainquiry33782 Words   |  136 Pagesto Wild Divine, a revolutionary new computer PC game which allows you to physically interact with the actions that happen within the game environment. The Journey to Wild Divine s innovative hardware platform measures skin conductance level (SCL) and heart rate variability through the three Magic Ring sensors gently attached to your fingers. The measurements are registered through the Light Stone and fed back to you through biofeedback events on the screen. Price The Journey To Wild Divine Read MoreVolkswagen20284 Words   |  82 PagesAmerican market, which have been the most competitive area in the last years, the new emerging economies in Latin America and East Asia have become the new battlefield for the giant global car makers. As well known, China’s car industry has a history of just 50 years since 1953, and it has become one of the pillar industries of China today. China has shifted from a nation of bikes to a mobile population in just one generation. Peng (2006) pointed out after China’s reformation in its foreign directRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pages E SSAYS ON TWENTIETH-C ENTURY H ISTORY In the series Critical Perspectives on the Past, edited by Susan Porter Benson, Stephen Brier, and Roy Rosenzweig Also in this series: Paula Hamilton and Linda Shopes, eds., Oral History and Public Memories Tiffany Ruby Patterson, Zora Neale Hurston and a History of Southern Life Lisa M. Fine, The Story of Reo Joe: Work, Kin, and Community in Autotown, U.S.A. Van Gosse and Richard Moser, eds., The World the Sixties Made: Politics and CultureRead MoreMonsanto: Better Living Through Genetic Engineering96204 Words   |  385 Pageseffectively, you should be sceptical of quick or easy approaches and answers. A systematic analysis helps you to understand a situation and determine what can work and probably what will not work. Key linkages and underlying causal networks based on the history of the ï ¬ rm become apparent. In this way, you can separate causal networks from symptoms. Also, because the quality of a case analysis depends on applying appropriate tools, it is important that you use the ideas, models and theories that seem to beRead MoreSolution Manual, Test Bank and Instructor Manuals34836 Words   |  140 Pages4th Edition_Marno Verbeek (SM) A History of Modern Psychology, 10th Edition _ Duane P. Schultz, Sydney Ellen Schultz ( IM+TB) A Microscale Approach to Organic Laboratory Techniques, 5th Edition _Donald L. Pavia, George S. Kriz, Gary M. Lampman, Randall G. Engel (IM) A People and a Nation A History of the United States, Brief Edition, Volume I, 9th Edition_Mary Beth Norton, Carol Sheriff, David W. Blight, Howard P. Chudacoff, A People and a Nation A History of the United States, Volume II Since

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Five Step Decision Making Process free essay sample

You have just completed interviewing three candidates for an entry-level position in your organization. One candidate is the friend of a coworker who has implored you to give his friend a chance. The candidate is the weakest of the three but has sufficient skill and knowledge to adequately fill the position. Would you hire this candidate?Hiring the least qualified person for the job as opposed to the most qualified because they are a friend of another employee could impact the quality of work for the end user and possibly set a very bad example to the other employees within the company. In this situation there are a couple options with varying levels of ethics. First and most appropriately, I could sit down with Human Resources (HR) and discuss the situation, detailing my discomfort with being approached by my co-worker, with the option of including upper management.But I would personally try to keep it with HR unless they really wanted upper management involved. We will write a custom essay sample on Five Step Decision Making Process or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Second, although definitely not within ethical standards, there is approaching the co-worker who suggested the candidate, to discuss the position, the adequacy of the three candidates and suggest if you hire him he hopes that he pulls through for you and the company. I would go with a utilitarian approach when coming to my conclusion. With HR you can throw out ideas such as is the most qualified person actually right for the company. Just because someone is has the experience and the proper qualifications does not mean that they will fit and be the best choice in the company. This is something you will need to consider for the employee and the company as well. Does the company have a policy stating that the highest qualified candidates be hired? And if not, the discussion of how to approach how and why a candidate that is less qualified would be chosen for hire and would it be favoritism or how can it be justified without showing that you were just doing a favor for a co-worker.If the least qualified person is still qualified and seems like they may actually fit in better with the company, as certain personalities mesh into different environments better than others, they may be the best choice for the job in the big picture. Other things I would consider in this situation is whether or not the employee asking you to do this favor is a trust worthy worker and if hiring their friend and it doesn’t work out, what impact will this have on your working relationship.A last consideration I would have is which of the three people interviewed shows the greatest opportunity for advancement within the company since the position they are hiring on for is intro level. After evaluating all the criteria and coming to a final decision I would contact that person and let them know that they have been chosen and offer them the position and discuss the potential start date if they choose to accept the job. Once they have accepted the position and come into HR to finalize the paperwork and have a solid start date I would start with introducing them to other workers.Being the new person can be challenging at times so making them feel welcome is very important. Being a new person can be so challenging, assigning a sponsor to get them settled into their new department could also ease some of the anxiety of a new job. Keep track of the new employee by evaluating their work performance. The level of output is important, however, in order to keep that output on a positive level, maintaining positive employees is beneficial. Not only is employee evaluations important, but face to face contact makes a lasting impression on new employees.Is the person happy at this company and with their current position within the company? Does the employee show potential for future advancement by taking on additional tasks or inquiring about additional opportunities? How do other workers feel about working wi th this new employee? How well does the new worker actually perform with the other employees? Talking with employees, stopping in their work space and making face time occasionally to be more than a name to them and to make the company feel approachable will help to know where your employees are with their job and within the company.

Monday, March 9, 2020

Data mining crime of data The WritePass Journal

Data mining crime of data 2  LITERATURE REVIEW Data mining crime of data 1  Ã‚  INTRODUCTION1.1   Ã‚  MOTIVATION AND BACKGROUND 1.2 PROBLEM DEFINITION1.3 PROJECT GOAL1.4 GENERAL APPROACH1.5   ORGANISATION OF DOCUMENT2  LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 INTRODUCTIO2.2  Ã‚  What is Data mining?2.3 Data mining definitions2.4 Data mining structure 2.5 Data mining methods and Techniques 2.6 Data mining modellingREFERENCERelated 1  Ã‚  INTRODUCTION 1.1   Ã‚  MOTIVATION AND BACKGROUND In the society crime issue is very important. It is common knowledge within the society that crime induces vast psychological, human and economical damages to individuals, environment and the economy of a particular society itself. It is very important that a society through its government, judiciary and legislative endeavours to control crime within their environment. Data mining is a brawny technique with expectant potency to help criminal investigators concentrate on the most important information in their crime data [1]. The cognition discovered from existing data goes to reveal a value added of its information. Successful data mining methodology depends intemperately on the peculiar selection of techniques employed by analyst. Their pragmatic applications are, for example, the criminal detectives, market sale forecasting and playing behaviour analysis in sport games. However the more the data and more composite question being treated and maintained, the more potent the system is required. This includes the potentiality of the system to analyze large quantity of data and composite information from various sources. In crime control of the law enforcement, there are many storage data and formats have to be revealed. When its amount has risen, it is hard to analyze and explore some new knowledge from them. Therefore, the data mining is employed to crime control and criminal curtailment by using frequency happening and length method under which these presumptions can be achieved. All these techniques give outcome to benefit detectives in searching behavioural practices of professional criminals. [1] The application in the law enforcement from data analysis can be categorised into two vital component, crime check and criminal curtailment. Crime check tends to use knowledge from the analysed data to control and prevent the happening of crime, while the criminal curtailment tries to arrest criminal by using his/her account records in data mining. Brown [2] has bui lt a software model for mining data in order to arrest professional criminals. They suggested an information system that can be used to apprehend criminals in their own area or regions.   The software can be employed to turn data into useful information with two technologies, data fusion and data mining. Data fusion deals fuses and translates information from multiple sources, and it overcomes confusion from conflict reports and cluttered or noisy backgrounds. Data mining is concerned with the automatic discovery of patterns and relationships in large databases. His software is called ReCAP(Regional Crime Analysis Program), which was built to provide crime analysis with both technologies (). When the terrorism was burst by 9/11 attacks, fears about national security has risen significantly and the world has varied forever. The strategy against a terrorist must be more advanced in order to prevent suicide attacks from their stratagem [5]. In the congressional conference, Robert S. Mueller – The Director of investigative department of FBI, suggested that they excessively emphasize to arrest the criminals with slightly attention for crime checks is the main problem of the law enforcement in the world [4].   It is more interesting now in data collection for criminal control plan. Abraham et. al. [1] suggested a method to use computer log register as account data search, some relationship by employing the frequency happening of incidents. Then, they analyze the outcome of produced profiles. The profiles could be employed to comprehend the behaviour of criminal. It should be observe that the types of crime could be exchanged over time determined by the variation of globalization and technology. Therefore, if we want to prevent crime efficiently, the behaviour must be employed with another kind of knowledge. We need to know the crime causes. de Bruin et. al. [3] introduced a new distance standard for comparing all individuals established on their profiles and then clustering them accordingly. This method concedes a visual clustering of criminal career and changes the identification of categories of criminals. They present the applicability of the data mining in the area of criminal career analysis. Four important elements play a role in the analysis of criminal career: crime nature, frequency, duration and severity. They also develop a particular distance standard to combine this profile difference with crime frequency and vary of criminal behaviour over time. The matrix was made that describe the number of variation in criminal careers between all couples of culprits. The data analysis can be employed to determine the trends of criminal careers. Nath[6] suggested a method for data division in order to use them present in the pattern of geographic map. We could decide the data division to be the veer of offend across many fields. 1.2 PROBLEM DEFINITION The report of the headline findings represents the 2006 Offending, crime and justice survey (OCJS). This gives description of style and degrees in youth offending anti-social behaviour (ASB) and victimisation amongst youth between the ages of 10-25 residing in a private household in England and Wales. Couple of years now data are obtained from respondent representatives’ interview 4,952 including 4,152 panel members and 799 fresh samples on the frequency consequences and characteristics of offender’s victimization in England and Wales. This survey enables the Offending, crime and justice survey (OCJS) to forecast the probability of specified outcome of victimization by assault, rape, theft, robbery, burglary, sexual assault, vehicle related theft, drug selling, for the population as a whole. The OCJS provides the largest forum in England and Wales for victims and offenders to describe the impact of crime and characteristics of offenders. 1.3 PROJECT GOAL This project aim to identify which of the data mining technique best suit the OCJS data. Identify underlying classes of offenders. 1.4 GENERAL APPROACH Data mining analysis has the tendency to work from the data up and the best techniques are those developed with a preference for large amount of data, making use of as much of the gathered data as potential to arrive at a reliable decision and conclusion. The analysis procedure starts with a set of data, employs a methodology to develop an optimal delegacy of the structure of the data during which time knowledge is gained. Once knowledge has been gained this can be broadened to large sets of data working on the effrontery that the larger the data set has a structure similar to the sample data.   Again this is analogous to a mining process where large numbers of low grade materials are sieved through in order to find something of value. Target Data Figure 1.1 Stages/Procedures identified in data mining adapted from [4]       1.5   ORGANISATION OF DOCUMENT The remainder of this report is as follow: Chapter 2 reviews the approach to data mining and also described the mining techniques. Chapter 3 introduced the basic theory for the algorithm. Chapter 4 described the adopted method. Chapter 5 presented the application and a discussion of the result. 2  LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 INTRODUCTIO The major reason that data mining has pulled a big deal of attention in information industry in recent years is due to the broad accessibility of vast amount of data and the impending need for turning such data into useful information and knowledge. The information and knowledge acquired can be employed for application ranging from business management, production control, and market analysis, to engineering design and science exploration. [4] Having focused so much attention on the collection of data the problem was what to do with this valuable resource? It was distinguished that information is at the centre of business operations and that decision makers could make use of the data stored to acquire valuable insight into business. Database management systems gave access to the data stored but this was only a small part of what could be acquired from the data. Traditional online transaction processing systems, OLTPs, are good at putting data into database quickly, safely and efficien tly but are not good at delivering meaningful analysis in return. Analyzing data can provide further knowledge about a business by going beyond the data explicitly stored to derive knowledge about the business. This is where data mining or knowledge discovery in database (KDD) has obvious benefit for any enterprise. [7]                                                                                    2.2  Ã‚  What is Data mining? Data mining is concerned with extracting or â€Å"mining† knowledge from large amount of data. The term is really misnomer. Recall that the mining of gold from rocks and sand is concerned with gold mining rather than sand and rocks mining. Thus â€Å"data mining† should have been more suitably named â€Å"knowledge mining from data†, which is unfortunately so long. â€Å"Knowledge mining† a shorter term might not show the emphasis on mining from large amount of data.[4,6] Nevertheless, mining is a bright term characterising the procedure that discovers a small set of treasured pearl from a large conduct of raw materials (figure 1). Thus, such Fig.2.1 data mining-searching for knowledge (interesting patterns) in your data. [4] Misnomer which contains both â€Å"data† and â€Å"mining† became a big choice. There are many other terms containing a similar or slightly dissimilar meaning to data mining, such as data archaeology, knowledge extraction, data/ pattern analysis, and data dredging knowledge mining from database. Lots of people treat data mining as an equivalent word for another popular used condition, â€Å"knowledge discovery in database† or KDD. Alternatively, others regard data mining as just an essential step in the procedure of knowledge discovery in database. [2, 4] Knowledge discovery as a process is described in fig.2 below and comprises of an iterative sequence of the following steps: Data cleaning (removal of noise or irrelevant data) Data integration (where product data source may be mixed) Data selection (where data applicable to the analysis task are recovered from the database) Data transformation (where data are translated or fused into forms appropriate for mining by doing summary or collection operations, for instance) Data mining (an essential procedure where intelligent methods are used in other to extract data forms or patterns), Pattern evaluation (to discover the truly concerning forms or patterns representing knowledge based on interest measure) Knowledge representation (where visualization and knowledge representation proficiencies are used to deliver the mined knowledge to the user) Fig.2.2 Data mining as a process of knowledge discovery adapted from [4, 7] The data mining steps may interact with the user or a knowledge base. The interesting patterns are presented to the user, and may be stored as new knowledge in the knowledge base. It is very important to note that according to this view, data mining is only one step in the entire process, albeit an essential one since it uncovers the hidden patterns for evaluation. Adopting a broad view of data mining functionality, data mining is the process of discovery interesting knowledge from large amount of data stored either in database, data warehouse, or other information repositories. Based on this view, the architecture of a typical data mining system may have the following major components: (1)   Data warehouse, database, or other information repository. This is one or a set of database, data warehouse, spread sheets, or other kind f information repositories. Data cleaning and data integration techniques may be performed on the data. (2)   Database or data warehouse server. The database or data warehouse server is responsible for fetching the relevant data, base on the user’s data mining request. (3)   Knowledge base. This is the domain knowledge that is used to guide the search, or evaluate the interestingness of resulting patterns. Such knowledge can include concept hierarchies, used to organize attributes or attributes values into different level of abstraction. Knowledge such as user beliefs, which can be used to assess a pattern’s interestingness based on its unexpectedness, may also be included. Other examples of domain knowledge are additional interestingness constraints or thresholds, and metadata (e.g., describing data from multiple heterogeneous sources). (4    Data mining engine. This is essential to data mining system and ideally consists of a set of functional module for tasks such as characterisation, association analysis, classification, evaluation and deviation analysis. (5)    Pattern evaluation module. This component typically employs interestingness measure and interacts with the data mining modules so as to focus the search towards interesting patterns. It may access interestingness threshold stored in the knowledge base. Alternatively the pattern evaluation module may be integrated with the mining module, depending on the implementation of the data mining method used. For efficient data mining, it is highly recommended to push evaluation of patterns interestingness as deep as possible into the mining process so as to confine the search to only the interesting patterns. (6)    Graphical user interface. This module communicate between the user and the data mining system, allowing the user to interact with the system by specifying a data mining query or task, providing information to help focus the search, and   performing exploratory data mining based on the intermediate data mining results. In evaluate mined patterns, and visualize the pattern in different forms.[4, 6, 7] The quantity of data continues to increase at a tremendous rate even though the data stores are already huge. The common problem is how to make the database a competitive job advantage by changing apparently meaningless data into useful information. How this challenge is satisfied is vital because institutions are increasingly banking on efficient analysis of the data simply to remain competitive. A variety of new techniques and technology is rising to assist sort through the information and discover useful competitive data. By knowledge discovery in databases, interesting knowledge, regularities, or high-ranking information can be elicited from the applicable set of information in databases and be looked-into from different angles; large databases thereby assist as ample and dependable source for knowledge generation and confirmations. Mining information and knowledge from large database has been recognized by many research workers as a key research subject in database systems and m achine learning. Institutions in many industries also take knowledge discovery as an important area with a chance of major revenue. [8] The discovered knowledge can be applied to information management, query processing, decision making, process control, and many other applications. From data warehouse view, data mining can be considered as an advance stage of on-line analytical processing (OLAP). However, data mining extends far beyond the constrict measure summarization mode analytical processing of data warehousing systems by integrating more advance techniques for information understanding [6, 8]. Many individuals treat data mining as an equivalent word for another popularly applied condition, Knowledge Discovery in Databases, or KDD. Alternatively, others view data mining as simply an indispensable measure in the process of knowledge discovery in databases. For example, the KDD process as follow: Learning the application domain Creating a dataset Data cleaning and pre-processing Data reduction and projection Choosing the function of data mining Choosing the data mining algorithm(s) Data mining Interpretation Using the discovery knowledge As the KDD process shows, data mining is the fundamental of knowledge discovering, it needs elaborated data training works. Data cleaning and pre-processing: includes basic operations such as removing noise or outliers, gathering the necessary data to model or account for noise, resolving on strategies for dealing with missing data fields, and accounting for time sequence data and recognised changes, as well as settling DBMS issues, such as mapping of missing and unknown values, information type, and outline. Useful data are selected from the arranged data to increase the potency and focus on the job. After data preparation, selecting the purpose of data mining determine the aim of the model gained by data mining algorithm (e.g. clustering, classification and summarization). Selecting the data mining algorithm includes choosing method(s) to be used for researching for patterns in the data, such as determining which models and parameters many are captured and corresponding to a particular data mining method with the overall standards of the KDD process. Data mining explores for patterns concern in a particular realistic form set of such representations; including classification rules, or clustering, regression, sequence modelling, trees, dependency and line analysis. The mining outcomes which correspond to the demands will be translated and mobilised, to be taken into process or be introduced to concerned companies in the last step. For the importance of data mining in KDD process, the term data mining is turning more popular than the longer term of knowledge discovery [3, 8]. Individuals gradually conform a broad opinion of data mining functionality to be the equivalent word of KDD. The concept of data mining holds all actions and techniques using the gathered data to get inexplicit information and studying historical records to acquire valuable knowledge. 2.3 Data mining definitions Larose [9] stipulated, data mining refers to the process of discovering meaningful new correlations, patterns and trends by sifting through large amount of data stored in repositories, using pattern recognition technologies as well as statistical and mathematical techniques. Hand et. al.[10] stated Data mining the analysis of (often large ) observational data sets to find unexpected relationship and to summarize the data in novel way that are both understandable and useful to the data owner. Peter[11] stipulated Data mining is an interdisciplinary field bringing together techniques from machine learning, pattern recognition, statistics, databases, and visualization to address the issues of information extraction from large data bases. The SAS institute (2000) defines data mining as the â€Å"process of selecting, researching and simulating huge amount of data set to reveal antecedent strange data form for business advantage. Data mining refers to as knowledge discovery in dat abases, meaning a process of little extraction of implicit, previously obscure and potentially useful information (such as knowledge rules, regularities, constraints) from data in databases.[12] From the business view, several data mining techniques are used to better realize user conduct, to improve the service provided, and to enhance business opportunities. Whatever the definition, data mining process differs, from statistical analysis of data. First predictive data is controlled by the need to reveal, in a well timed style, rising courses whereas statistical analysis is associated to historical information and established on observed information. Secondly statistical analysis concentrates on findings and explaining the major origin of variation in the data, in contrast, data mining strives to discover, not the apparent sources of variation, but rather the significant, although presently neglected, information. Therefore statistical analysis and data mining are complementary. Sta tistical analysis explains and gets rid of the major part of data variation before data mining is employed. This explains why the data warehousing tool not only stores data but also comprises and performs some statistical analysis programs. As to on-line analysis processing (OLAP) its relationship with data mining can be considered as disassociation.[9,12] OLAP is a data summarization/collection tool that assist modify data analysis, while data mining allows the automated discovery of implicit form and interesting knowledge concealed in large amount of data. OLAP tools are directed toward backing and changing interactive data analysis; while data mining tools is to automate as much of the analysis process as possible. Data mining goes one step beyond OLAP. As noted in the former section, data mining is almost equal to KDD and they have like process. Below are the data mining processes: Human resource identification Problem specification Data prospecting Domain knowledge elicitation Methodology identification Data pre-processing Pattern discovery Knowledge post-processing In stage 1 of data mining process, human resource identification, and the human resource should be required in the plan and their various purpose are identified. In most data mining job the human resources involved are the field experts, the data experts, and the data mining expert. In stage 2 concerned jobs are analyzed and defined. Next, data searching requires in analyzing the available data and selecting the predicting subset of data to mine. The aim of stage 4, field knowledge induction, is to extract the useful knowledge already known about the job from field experts. In stage 5, methodology identification, the most reserve mining prototypes are chosen. In stage 6, data pre-processing is depicted to transform data into the state fit for mining. Pattern discovery stage which includes the computation and knowledge discovery is talked about in section 7. The patterns found in the former stage are filtered to attract the best pattern in the last stage. [8] Fayed et al. (1996), on the other hand suggested the following steps: Recovering the data from large database. Choosing the applicable subset to work with. Resolving on reserve sampling system, cleaning the data and coping with missing domain records. Employing applicable transformations, dimensionality simplification and projections. Equipping models to pre-processed data. The processes of data mining are elaborate and complicated. Many requirements should be observed on the follow of data mining, so challenges of growing data mining application are one of the crucial matters in this field. Below are the listed of challenges growth: Dealing with different types of data. Efficiency and measurability of data mining algorithm. Usefulness, certainty, and quality of data mining results Formula of several forms of data mining results. Synergistic mining knowledge at product abstraction stages. Mining data from different sources of information. Security of privacy and data protection. 2.4 Data mining structure The architecture of a distinctive data mining system may have the following major elements: Database, data warehouse, or other data deposit Database or data warehouse server Knowledge base Data mining engine Pattern rating module Graphical user interface The information sources of a data mining system can be divergent information deposits like database, data warehouse, or other deposits. The database or data warehouse server is responsible for getting the applicable data to accomplish the data mining postulation. Data mining engine is the heart of data mining system. The operational module of data mining algorithms and patterns are maintained in the engine. Knowledge base stores the field knowledge that is used to lead the data mining process, and provides the data that rules evaluation module motives to formalise the results of data mining. If the mining results has passed the establishment step then they will get to user via the graphical user interface, user can interact with the system by the interface. [4, 8, 11] 2.5 Data mining methods and Techniques Various techniques have been suggested for resolving a problem of extracting knowledge from volatile data, each of which follow different algorithm. One of the fields where information plays an important part is that of law enforcement. Obviously, the raising amount of criminal data gives rise to various problem including data storage, data warehousing and data analysis. [11] Data mining methods relate to the function cases that data mining tools provides. The abstract definition of each data mining method and the classification basis always disagree for the ease of explanation, the condition of present situation, or researcher’s scope. Association, classification, prediction, clustering are usually the common methods in different works, while the term description, summarization, sequential rules etc. Might not always be used and named in the first place. If some methods are not named it does not refer these methods are not created because the researcher may allot special term to methods to indicate certain significant characters. Progressive specification and jobs sectors can also be a good ground to consider the terminology. For example â€Å"REGRESSION† is often used to substitute â€Å"PREDICTION† because the major and conventional techniques for prediction are statistical regression. â€Å"Link analysis† can be discussed severally outlying â€Å"association† in telecommunication industry. Table 1.1 shows the method recognised by scholars: Data mining methods comprise techniques which develop from artificial intelligence, statistics, machine learning, OLAP and so on. These most often observed methods are classed into five categories according to their work types in business applications, and the five types of data mining methods are clustering, classification, association, prediction and profiling. Table 1 Data mining classification literatures Sources: This research   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Author   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Data Mining Classification Barry (1997) Prediction, Classification, Estimation, Clustering, Description, Affinity grouping. Han, et al. (1996) Clustering, Association, Classification, Generalization, Similarity search, Path traversal pattern. Fayyed, et (1996) Clustering, Regression, Classification, Summarization, Dependency modelling, Link analysis, Sequence analysis. Association: reveals relationship or dependence between multiple things, such as Link analysis, market basket analysis, and variable dependency. Association is in two levels: quantitative and structured. The structural level of the method assigns (often in graphical form) which things are associated; the quantitative level assigns the strength of the relationship using some numerical scale. Market basket analysis is a well recognized association application; it can be executed on a retail data of customer deal to find out what item are often purchased together (also known as item sets). Apriori is a basic algorithm for finding frequent item sets. The denotation of apriori can further deal with multi-level, multi-dimensional and more composite data structure. [7] Classification: function (or classifies) a data detail into one of several set of categorical classes. Neural network, Decision tree, and some probability advances are often used to execute this function. There are two steps to carry out classification work. In the first step, classification model is form describing a predetermined set up of classes or concepts. Second step the model is used for categorization. For example, the classification learned in the first step from the analysis of data from existing customers can be used to predict the credit evaluation of new or future customers. Prediction: admits regression and part of time series analysis. Prediction can be regarded as the structure and use of a model to evaluate the value or value ranges of a property that a given sample is probably to have. This method functions a data item to a real-value prediction variable, and the goal of time series analysis is to model the state of the process generating the sequence or to extract and study deviation and style over time. In our opinion, the major deviation between prediction and classification is that prediction processes with continuous values while classification centres on judgements. Clustering: functions a data item into one of various categorical classes (or clusters) in which the categories must be determined from the data different assortments in which the classes are determine. Clusters are defined by determinations of natural grouping of data detail based on similarities metrics or probability density models, and the procedure to form these groups is named as unsupervised learning to distinguish from supervised learning of classification. Data mining techniques and methods render capable extraction of concealed predictive data from huge datasets or databases. It is a very powerful new technology with great potency to assist institutions concentrate on the important information in their database and data warehouse. Data mining instruments forecast future behaviours and trends, allowing businesses to make active, knowledge aimed decision. The automated, potential analyses proposed by data mining go beyond the analyses of previous issues provided by retrospective instruments typically for decision support systems. [2, 4, 12] Data mining instruments can respond to business question that traditionally were times consuming to conclude. They examine databases for hidden patterns, finding predictive information that experts may miss because it lies outside their expectation. Most institutions already collect and refine large quantities of data. Data mining methods and techniques can be carried out quickly on existing hardware and software program to raise the scope of the existing information resources, and can be merged with new systems and products as they are brought on-line. When enforced on high performance client/server or parallel processing computers, data mining instrument can analyze huge databases to present answers to questions such as, which clients are most likely to answer my next promotional mailing, and why?[10, 12] Recent progress in data collection, storage and manipulation instruments such as extraordinary storage and computational capability, use of the internet, modern surveillance equipments etc, have widen the range and limit for the same. Moreover, the increasing dependence on high technology equipment for common man has facilitated the process of data collection. [13] The data might be in the direct form or may not be in the direct form and might need some interpretation based on former knowledge, experience and most importantly is determined by purpose of data analyses. This job is further augmented by sheer intensity, texture of data and lack of human capabilities to deduce it in ways it is supposed to be. For this reason many computational instruments are used and are broadly named as Data mining tools. [10] Data mining tools constitutes of basic statistics and Regression methods, Decision trees, ANOVA and rule based techniques and more importantly advanced algorithm that uses neural networks and Artificial Intelligence techniques. The applications of data mining tools are limitless and basically aimed by cost, time constraints, and current demand of the community, business and the government. [14] 2.6 Data mining modelling Data mining modelling is the critical part in developing business applications. Business application, such as â€Å"cross selling†, will be turn into one or more of business problems, and the goal of modelling is to formulate these business problems as a data mining task. For example, in cross selling application, the association in the product area is determine, and then customers will be classified into several clusters to see which product mix can be matched to what customers. To know which data mining task is most suitable for current problem, the analysis and understanding of data mining task’s characters and steps is needed. Data mining algorithm consists largely of some specific mix of three components. The model: There are two relevant factors: the function of the model (e.g., clustering and classification) and the representational form of the model (e.g., a linear function of multiple variables and a Gaussian probability density function). A model contains parameters that are to be determined from the data. The preference criterion: A basis preference of one model or set of parameters over another, depending on given data. The criterion is usually some form of goodness-of-fit function of the model to the data, perhaps tempered by a smoothing term to avoid over fitting, or generating a model with too many degrees of freedom to be constrained by the given data. The search algorithm: The specification of an algorithm for finding particular models and parameters, given data, a model (or family of models), and a preference criterion. The choice of what data mining techniques to apply at a given point in the knowledge discovery processes depends on the particular data mining task to be accomplished and on the data available for analysis. The requirement of the task dedicate to the function f data mining, and the detailed characteristics of the tasks influence the feasibility between mining methods and business problems. The so called detail characteristic includes data types, parameter varieties, hybrid approaches and so on.   Slightly difference in the model will cause enormous performance change, so modelling stage effects the quality of data mining tools heavily. REFERENCE [1] T. Abraham and O. de Vel, Investigative profiling with computer forensic log data and association rules, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Data Mining (ICDM02), pp. 11 – 18,2006. [2] D.E. Brown, The regional crime analysis program (RECAP): A frame work for mining data to catch criminals, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics,Vol. 3, pp. 2848-2853, 1998. [3] J.S. de Bruin, T.K. Cocx, W.A. Kosters, J. Laros and J.N. Kok, â€Å"Data mining approaches to criminal career analysis,† in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Data Mining (ICDM’06), pp.171-177, 2006. [4] J. Han and M. Kamber, â€Å"Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques,†Morgan Kaufmann publications, pp. 1-39, 2006. [5] J. Mena, â€Å"Investigative Data Mining for Security and Criminal Detection†, Butterworth Heinemann Press, pp. 15-16, 2003. [6] S.V. Nath, â€Å"Crime pattern detection using data mining,† in Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology, pp. 41-44,2006. [7] S. Nagabhushana â€Å"Data warehousing OLAP and Data mining†, published by new age international,pp251-350, 2006 [8]Takao Terano, Huan Liu, Arbee L.P. Chen (Eds.) 2000 â€Å"knowledge discovery and data mining current issues and application† [9]Larose, Daniel T. 2005 Discovering Knowledge in data mining. An introduction to data mining (pg.3) [10]Hand, D. J.Heikki Mannile, padhraic Smyth, 2001 Principle of data mining (pg. 1) [11] Peter cabena, Pablo Hadjinian, Rolf stadler, Jaap verhees, and alessandro zanasi, 1998 [12]Eric D. Kolaczyk 2009 Statistical analysis of network data, method and models Discovering data mining: from concept to implementation† (pg. 2) [13]Trevor Hastic, Robert   Tibshirani, Jerome freedman 2001 The Element of Statistical learning, data mining, inference, and Prediction [14] An Introduction to Data Mining: (Internet site accessed on 27th April 2011.) [15] Padhye, Manoday Dhananjay â€Å"Use of Data Mining for Investigation of Crime Patterns†, [16]Graham J. williams, simeon J. simmoff (edu).2006 Data mining: Theory, methodology, Techniques, and applications [17]Hill Kargupta, Jiawei Han, Philip S. Yu, Rajeev Motwani and Vipin Kumar 2009 Next generation of data mining [18]Robert G. Cowell, A. Philip David, Steffen L. Lauritzen, David J. Spieglhalter 1999 Statistics for Engineering and Information science [19]Deepayan Sarkar, 2008 Multivariate data Visualization with R. [20]Luis Torgo2011 data mining with R. learning with case studies [21] Everitt, Brian and Graham Dunn 2001 â€Å"Applied multivariate data analysis† Masters Thesis,West VirginiaUniversity. 2006. P. Thongtae and S. Srisuk An Analysis of Data Mining Applications in Crime Domain Computer and Information Technology Workshops, 2008. CIT Workshops 2008. IEEE 8th International Conference on Tabachnick, Barbara G., 1936- Using multivariate statistics / Barbara G. Tabachnick, Linda S. Fidell . 5th ed. . -Boston,Mass.;London: Pearson : Allyn and Bacon, 2007 . 0205465250

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Summarize chapter 16 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Summarize chapter 16 - Essay Example The wheels are made in two halves which need to be matched by manufacturer and part number. d. Air craft Tire Construction. Air craft tires are tubeless tires designed to with stand high speed along with static and dynamic loading. Unlike automobile aircraft tires fail under continuous operation. e. Tire Specification The specification details are mentioned on the side walls of tires and available in manufacturer’s data sheets. These include ply rating, load rating, speed rating, retread history etc. m. Coefficient of Friction. The stopping of aircraft on runway after application of brakes is the function of friction of tire and runway. The value used in all deceleration calculation is coefficient of friction which is the ratio between the force needed between the two surfaces to slide against each other and force holding them. The coefficient is measured from MU meter and diagonally brake