Wednesday, November 27, 2019

APUSH Research Paper Essays

APUSH Research Paper Essays APUSH Research Paper Paper APUSH Research Paper Paper The late 1800s and early 1900s, during the era of post Emancipation, the United States was a period of identity exploration, enlightenment, and empowerment, as well as interdivision, discrimination, and adaptation for the African American peoples. Social revolutionists like Marcus Garvey and role modeled entrepreneurs like Madam CJ Walker were among the many blacks that influenced the national black community during their time of struggle and search for societal and economical direction. Walker and Garvey both strived for the advancement of their people, but had different long term effects on blacks and plans for the future. Walkers use of Eurocentric ideals to beautify Black features socially and economically carried her higher than any woman, let alone black woman, in the business world. Her use of advertisements created a standard of black beauty in America that would gain acceptance. Garveys efforts to create a movement glorifying Afrocentric culture and lifestyle resulted in criticism from his own people and federal attention. These historical fgures in the African American community were a part of a long lasting conflict of identity within the black race and the continuation of developing a black American culture completely different than African culture, creating a disparity between what it means to be African and African American. Madam CJ Walker, born Sarah Breedlove, was the first one of her family born into freedom in 1867 in Delta, Louisiana. With the time periods lack of indoor plumbing, central heating, and electricity, most Americans bathed infrequently, causing people like Walker to experience hair loss and scalp disease. Walker experimented with home remedies to find a cure. Soon, she developed her own line of hair care and moved throughout the ountry to major industrial cities like Pittsburgh and Indianapolis to spread its use. In Pittsburgh, Walker established Lelia College in 1908 to educated hair culturists and expand her empire. It was in Indianapolis that she opened her headquarters and factory. With her success, Walker believed in empowering the black community by providing a place where they can develop skills to become successful entrepreneurs. Her institutions taught and trained black women to build and manage themselves in the business world. She also gave lectures on social, economic, and political issues sponsored by black institutions. As time went on and blacks dispersed throughout American society, racial violence and discrimination in the South became the social norm. Jim Crow Laws enacted in 1876 during the annexation of Reconstruction legally separated blacks from whites and created the hatred of the black race. After the East St. Louis Race Riot, Madam CJ Walker united with the leaders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in their efforts to bring lynching as a federal crime. Through her efforts to support black advancement, Walker donated large amounts of her earnings to rganizations like the NAACP, black schools, orphanages, and retirement homes and was acknowledged in 1918 at the biennial convention of the National Association of Colored Women (NACW) for making the largest contribution to save the Anacostia a $250,000 estate in New York which was built by the first licensed black architect in New York State, Vertner Tandy. Never before had a black woman from the south born of slave parents climb the social and economic ladder to success and become the wealthiest African-American woman in America and known to be the first self-made female American millionaire. Between the 1890s and early 1900s, blacks struggled with white acceptance, and often went to extreme measures to make themselves appear to have enough white blood in them to fend themselves from the worst types of discrimination. Slavery deprived Africans of the natural oils and herbs they used to maintain healthy hair, thus forming the definition of the word nappy as foaming to describe the kinky matted texture of the slaves hair which has become a way to further stigmatize Black hair. The nations social, political, and economic system had been determined by racial appearance and standards. Madam CJ Walkers hair care product advertisements often depicted European features on a black woman, insinuating that the more white you are, the more beautiful, socially accepted, and capable of achieving a better life you are. On one label, Walker herself is depicted with long, straight hair and light skin. This label sends the message to her customers that they too can achieve this luscious, Eurocentric hair when they use this product, ensuring a more appealing and Americanized view of black beauty. Another ad for Madam CJ Walkers miracle products shows a woman with White features, ossibly portraying that Walkers products could work on any type of hair, or advertising a look that everyone should achieve to maintain their society-approved womanhood. Despite Walkers astounding accomplishments as a post- Emancipation black woman, her inventions and goals toward helping blacks achieve success contributed to the appreciation of Eurocentric culture, ideal of self-hatred within the black communities, and growth of the belief that African features were not beautiful. These adaptations to American societal standards were a means of survival for Walker and ther blacks who used Eurocentric ways to create a culturally accepted life for themselves. These ways of living and gaining recognition in the white communities created a divide between blacks who glorified and strived to uphold Afrocentric traditions like Marcus Garvey. Jamaican political leader, Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. was born in 1887 and became many things including a resolute proponent of the Black Nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements. He founded many pro-black Communities League, the Black Star Line, part of the Back-to-Africa movement, which promoted the return of the African diaspora to their ancestral lands. His ability to actualize a mass movement and economic empowerment for Africa created the ideal of Garveyism. Influenced by Booker T. Washington, Garvey became intelligent as a child from reading books from his fathers extensive library. He attended Birkbeck College in London, taking Eurocentric education to use to his advantage in applying his knowledge to leading a nation of mentally and economically broken people. The early 1900s in the northern states of America was a period of Black advancement and pride. During the Harlem Renaissance era, when blacks developed a culture of rts, literature, politics, and a new social identity, Garvey began publishing his widely spread newspaper, Negro World, in August of 1918. As the editor, he used the paper as a means to spread black nationalism through an everyday primary source to those of African ancestry at home and abroad. Garveys Negro Magazine gave blacks a literary social life (inspiration) that was never attainable as slaves. The magazine was strong with words of motivation and pride that encouraged blacks to keep fighting and be proud of their ancestry. This decision of following Eurocentric or following Afrocentric ideals and culture divided blacks along intellectual lines. Ga o. ey was criticized by his own race for wanting to empower blacks and bring them back to their homeland, where they can populate and live without the poverty, violence, and racism in America. In an excerpt from the article Africa for Africans from Garveys paper, Negro World, he speaks on those who are opposed of his efforts to continue the Pan-African Movement. One editor and leader went so far as to say at his Pan- African Congress that American Negroes could not live in Africa, because the climate was too hot. All kinds of arguments have been adduced by these Negro intellectuals against the colonization of Africa by the black race. Some said that the black man would ultimately work out his existence alongside of the white man in countries founded and established by the latter (Garvey). Garveys written ideas of people going back to their original continents to restructure cultural peace are expressed in this excerpt from Negro World. He writes about his feelings towards the Negro intellectuals, he calls them, who are in denial and opposed to his ideas of an Afrocentric empowerment movement. The criticisms and oppositions from educated blacks in seeing themselves inherently different from Africans follows the issue of the growing distance between Africans and African Americans. It also presents the fear that white supremacists will have yet another reason for racial violence towards blacks, as expressed in a letter sent to Harry M. Daugherty, United States Attorney General. African American leaders opposed to Garveys plans to spread among Negroes distrust and hatred of all white people, write this source entitled, Garvey Must Go, in hopes to enforce Federal involvement to capture Garvey. This letter tries to make clear that not all blacks follow Garvey, to make known that these specific blacks in New York writing the letter are good and obedient civilians. This document describes Garvey as a foreign violent menace to all Americans and seems to want security from the whites in power so they dont begin to think that all blacks in America are preparing to rebel. And so the interdivision amongst blacks intellectually and economically, resulted in Garveys long-term goals positive way to advance Negro Americans in society, however, inspired religions, such s the Nation of Islam and Rastafari movement, and inspired more Afrocentric pride in the years of the Harlem Renaissance and further development of Americas black culture. The combination of Eurocentric and Afrocentric cultures began to create the African American culture. Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller was a celebrated black female artist and the daughter of a barber and hairdresser/wig maker in 1877. In Philadelphia, she was encouraged to use her creative mind to sculpt. As she became older and influenced by Eurocentric culture, she was able to get a decent education nd study art under sculptors in France. Upon arriving back to Philadelphia in the early 1900s-20s, she realized her art style became subdued. She began engaging in the African American experience by creating pieces rooted in black culture during the Harlem Renaissance. Her sculpture Ethiopia Awakening displayed a woman in African garments symbolized her appreciation for her African heritage and symbolized what was happening to the black community as a whole during the Renaissance and spread of Garveyism. Female artist Augusta Savage was also nfluenced by African American leaders like Garvey and W. E. B. DuBois, this black woman artist was inspirational during the period of black excellence in music, art, literature, and ideals†the Harlem Renaissance. Savage not only sculpted pieces that projected black culture, history, and united pride, but busts of both Garvey and DuBois, symbolizing their leadership as admirable and responsible for the flourishing of the Afrocentric black community in the 1920s. This racial consciousness and gratification for the black race benefitted in American society as well. This infant of African American culture embodied American education and values as well as African features and traditions. The cultural transformation of the Black Community during the late 1800s and early 1900s influenced all aspects of being black in America. By adapting Eurocentric values African Americans were able to fight and survive in American society. Madam CJ Walker, Marcus Garvey, and a united but divided black community, who were stripped of their kingdom, language, and customs during slavery, used the coexistence of Afro and Eurocentric ideals, traditions, and cultures to create one of their own.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Example of Goodness of Fit Test

Example of Goodness of Fit Test The chi-square goodness of fit test is a useful to compare a theoretical model to observed data. This test is a type of the more general chi-square test. As with any topic in mathematics or statistics, it can be helpful to work through an example in order to understand what is happening, through an example of the chi-square goodness of fit test. Consider a standard package of milk chocolate MMs. There are six different colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue and brown. Suppose that we are curious about the distribution of these colors and ask, do all six colors occur in equal proportion? This is the type of question that can be answered with a goodness of fit test. Setting We begin by noting the setting and why the goodness of fit test is appropriate. Our variable of color is categorical. There are six levels of this variable, corresponding to the six colors that are possible. We will assume that the MMs we count will be a simple random sample from the population of all MMs. Null and Alternative Hypotheses The null and alternative hypotheses for our goodness of fit test reflect the assumption that we are making about the population. Since we are testing whether the colors occur in equal proportions, our null hypothesis will be that all colors occur in the same proportion. More formally, if p1 is the population proportion of red candies, p2 is the population proportion of orange candies, and so on, then the null hypothesis is that p1 p2 . . . p6 1/6. The alternative hypothesis is that at least one of the population proportions is not equal to 1/6. Actual and Expected Counts The actual counts are the number of candies for each of the six colors. The expected count refers to what we would expect if the null hypothesis were true. We will let n be the size of our sample. The expected number of red candies is p1 n or n/6. In fact, for this example, the expected number of candies for each of the six colors is simply n times pi, or n/6. Chi-square Statistic for Goodness of Fit We will now calculate a chi-square statistic for a specific example. Suppose that we have a simple random sample of 600 MM candies with the following distribution: 212 of the candies are blue.147 of the candies are orange.103 of the candies are green.50 of the candies are red.46 of the candies are yellow.42 of the candies are brown. If the null hypothesis were true, then the expected counts for each of these colors would be (1/6) x 600 100. We now use this in our calculation of the chi-square statistic. We calculate the contribution to our statistic from each of the colors. Each is of the form (Actual – Expected)2/Expected.: For blue we have (212 – 100)2/100 125.44For orange we have (147 – 100)2/100 22.09For green we have (103 – 100)2/100 0.09For red we have (50 – 100)2/100 25For yellow we have (46 – 100)2/100 29.16For brown we have (42 – 100)2/100 33.64 We then total all of these contributions and determine that our chi-square statistic is 125.44 22.09 0.09 25 29.16 33.64 235.42. Degrees of Freedom The number of degrees of freedom for a goodness of fit test is simply one less than the number of levels of our variable. Since there were six colors, we have 6 – 1 5 degrees of freedom. Chi-square Table and P-Value The chi-square statistic of 235.42 that we calculated corresponds to a particular location on a chi-square distribution with five degrees of freedom. We now need a p-value, to determines the probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as 235.42 while assuming that the null hypothesis is true. Microsoft’s Excel can be used for this calculation. We find that our test statistic with five degrees of freedom has a p-value of 7.29 x 10-49. This is an extremely small p-value. Decision Rule We make our decision on whether to reject the null hypothesis based on the size of the p-value. Since we have a very miniscule p-value, we reject the null hypothesis. We conclude that MMs are not evenly distributed among the six different colors. A follow-up analysis could be used to determine a confidence interval for the population proportion of one particular color.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Civil Rights Movement111 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Civil Rights Movement111 - Essay Example The struggle for the basic right to be recognized as a citizen - more, as a human being, - began really during the years of slavery as is evidenced by the case Dred Scott vs. Sandford in 1857. However, as an organized movement it did not gain momentum until the pre- World War 1 years, beginning in 1905 with the formation of the Niagara Movement. For years after that, the Movement was restricted to the battleground of the courts, with only a few incidents threatening to lead to mass action. It was not till 1955, with the brutal murder of fifteen year old Emmett Till, that the black community as a whole was galvanized into action and forced the Southern states to accept integration and obtained the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The division of the Movement into these broad stages; first a period of quiet but steady legal battles followed by the transition into dramatic but nonviolent mass action is very noticeable when one follows the timeline of events. The reasons for this , I think, go back into the years of slavery and Reconstruction and it is impossible to understand the motivations and ramifications of the movement spanning World War 1 to the eighties without delving into the conditions prior to this era. The years of slavery left the majority of bla... Washington, who believed that by passive acceptance of the segregation and taking up non threatening pursuits like farming they would slowly be able to persuade the White South to accept them. It seems likely that the blacks had not yet developed the mass consciousness that is necessary to fight a battle of the proportions it later took on. The lack of education and exposure was a huge barrier to overcome at first; without any experience of other worlds many blacks did not realize that life could be significantly better This would change with time, notably during the First World War. Another hurdle, infinitely more difficult to overcome, was the 1896 Supreme Court ruling in Plessy vs. Ferguson that legalized segregation of facilities as long as they were equal. This led to the widespread abuse of the ruling in the south with facilities for blacks definitely inferior. Legally, they had no leg to stand on I fighting racism. It hampered the Movement considerably during the years up to 1 954. The development of the Movement was greatly helped by the Black Churches that were formed after segregation. The churches were more than a place for worship; they served as a political platform, as a social work organization. (Calhoun-Brown, A., 2000). It was here that they learned to survive as well as regained pride. The attitude of nonviolence that they brought to their protests later was probably a result of their church training. It was in 1905 that groups of people began to realize that the method of passive acceptance was getting them nowhere. W.E.B. DuBois, broke away from Washington and founded the Niagara Movement to fight for quality education and to end discrimination. The organization

Wednesday, November 20, 2019


DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL MODEL OF LEADERSHIP - Term Paper Example A leader’s success is measured by how positively or negatively he or she has impacted on the lives of the subjects (Chemers, p. 67). I have admired the leadership styles of many leaders, past and present, but the main leadership influence in my life is George Washington. Though I cannot exactly emulate Washington’s personal and leadership character traits, his type of leadership will be the template upon which my leadership skills and abilities will be honed. In fact, it is these leadership traits that made George Washington the first president of the United States of America. George Washington, was born as the first child, on 22nd February 1732, to Augustine Washington and Mary Ball Washington. Despite losing his father and many other siblings at an early age, his innate leadership skills were evident when he took over the management of his father’s estates and generally ran his family matters (Cornwell, p. 146). Washington’s leadership prowess was tested several times as he rose through various ranks in the independence wars. He served diligently in the American Revolution (1775-1783). As the commander-in-chief, he strategized the whole war, with the approval of the congress. He was also charged with recruiting, organizing and training the army. In a nutshell; he is credited with the victory of the American Revolution. Even after independence he went ahead to become the first president of the United States of America and undertook a supervisory role in the drafting of its very first constitution and in the laying of the many norms upon which the modern government of the US is based (Cornwell, p. 342). Looking at his life, especially his accomplishments, one cannot miss the personal attributes that a good leader should possess. First among these virtues is courage. Leaders must be courageous in all they do. Second, George Washington displayed humility despite all the power and influence he had. He was also a visionary. In addition t o these, he was hardworking, diligent and focused. Above all, he was a God fearing and prayerful family man. These are the virtues I admire in a leader. These are the values I take from George Washington. Coming from a modest background, my dream in life is to get to a position where I can help the less fortunate in society, a position of leadership where I can positively impact the lives of my countrymen. I yearn to change my country for the better of the future generations. As I pursue this dream, the values I want to hold close to my heart are hard work and humility. I will always work hard and be humble in the process, all the while thanking God for the achievements that come my way. The main assumption if given a leadership position is that all my subordinates will rally behind me in striving to achieve personal and organizational growth and other objectives. I believe leadership is divine, and the people normally place their hopes in the leader that all their problems will be solved. Thus, as a leader, I will always try not to betray the trust of my subordinates for the sake of personal selfish gains. Finally, my expectation of the world is that it becomes a safer home for all humanity with equal rights, opportunities, and freedom for everybody as far as the pursuance of happiness is concerned. These are my aspirations as a leader. Given a chance to serve

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Meaning of Life Essay Example for Free

Meaning of Life Essay Personhood Chart This chart contains a grid for different philosophical anthropologies that answer the question of personhood. Complete the following chart in the context of defining what it means to be human according to Christianity, Materialism, and your own Personal View. Refer to the assigned reading for explanation of characteristics listed on the left. Christianity Materialism Personal View Relational God created human beings to live in community. When people lose that sense of love and belonging, they lose their meaning and purpose in life. God created family and the neighbor to be provide the human with the relationship needed for hope and healing. In order to carry out production and exchange, people have to enter into very definite social relations, most fundamentally production relations. Relationships with others should be based off of the materials in which they can provide you with the benefit a person the most. I believe everyone steps into our lives for one reason or another- either good or bad and we need to be the ones to differentiate between the two. Each relationship provides us with a sense of love and understanding on the purpose of our life. Multidimensional There is a vibrant sense of the person in relationship to God and the world through the bodily senses and functions. The body, soul, mind, spirit and even the various body parts are expressions of the wholeness that is the human self. Humans are material objects. They are not immaterial things, or objects, or substances; neither do they contain as parts immaterial selves or souls or entelechies. Their parts are material: flesh and bones and blood, molecules, atoms, electrons. A human is more than a corpse. We are multidimensional and each dimension is important in who we are and how we act in society. Â © 2015. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. Sexual Jesus showed us that we are sexual beings. Sexuality encompasses the physical, emotional and spiritual aspects of our being. Man and women are supposed to stay faithful to each other and not commit adultery. It is believed to be a physical act between two individuals that creates energy and may result in the creation of a child through scientific means. Sexual behavior affects not only a person’s physical health but also self- image, interpersonal relationships and relationship with God and others. Moral We should choose to act based on good thinking, Scripture and prayer, and the Holy Spirit helps us discern the right alternatives. God knows our intentions are to please him and desire the best moral outcomes for all. The brain and body are a dynamic system interacting with the environment. There is no non- physical entity which could take credit or blame for the outcome of our actions. We learn our morals through trial and error as well as through the relationships we have with others. If we surround ourselves with ethically individuals we too with be ethical. Mortal We are mortals, but God has given us eternal life in Jesus Christ. We die, and yet we live. Poor stewardship of the life God has given us may well exacerbate the death and decay that surround us In order for human beings to survive and continue existence from generation to generation, it is necessary for them to produce and reproduce the material requirements of life Mortality is unavoidable yet difficult. Once someone dies their soul will either go to Heaven or to Hell. Destined for Eternal Life Destined for eternal life: Eternal life is the life one lives after death. By death the soul is separated from the body, but in the resurrection God will give incorruptible life to our body, transformed by reunion with our soul There is no such thing as eternal life. Life begins when the heart starts beating and ends with the heart stops beating. I believe that those who believe will live an eternal life and that those who do not will not. 2 References Plantinga, Alvin. (2010) Materialism and Christian Belief. Retrieved from http://www. andrewmbailey. com/ap/Materialism_Christian_Belief. pdf Shelly, J. , Miller, A. (2006). Called to care: A Christian worldview for nursing (2nd ed. ). Downers Grove, Ill. : IVP Academic/Intervarsity Press.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Communism Essay -- Communism Essays

I  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Introduction Communism: A theory and system of social and political organization that was a major force in world politics for much of the 20th century. As a political movement, communism sought to overthrow capitalism through a workers’ revolution and establish a system in which property is owned by the community as a whole rather than by individuals. In theory, communism would create a classless society of abundance and freedom, in which all people enjoy equal social and economic status. In practice, communist regimes have taken the form of coercive, authoritarian governments that cared little for the plight of the working class and sought above all else to preserve their own hold on power. The idea of a society based on common ownership of property and wealth stretches far back in Western thought. In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement of 19th-century Europe. At that time, Europe was undergoing rapid industrialization and social change. As the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for creating a new class of poor, urban factory workers who labored under harsh conditions, and for widening the gulf between rich and poor. Foremost among these critics were the German philosopher Karl Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels. Like other socialists, they sought an end to capitalism and the exploitation of workers. But whereas some reformers favored peaceful, longer-term social transformation, Marx and Engels believed that violent revolution was all but inevitable; in fact, they thought it was â€Å"predicted by the scientific laws of history.† They called their theory â€Å"scientific socialism,† or communism. In the last half of the 19th century the terms socialism and communism were often used interchangeably. Ho wever, Marx and Engels came to see socialism as merely an intermediate stage of society in which most industry and property were owned in common but some class differences remained. They reserved the term communism for a final stage of society in which class differences had disappeared, people lived in harmony, and government was no longer needed. The meaning of the word communism shifted after 1917, when Vladimir Lenin and his Bolshevik Party seized power in Russia. The Bolsheviks changed their name to the Communist Party and installed a repress... ...that lacked the preconditions he and Engels considered essential, namely capitalism and a mature industrial economy. The first of these countries was Russia, a huge, poor, relatively backward nation that was just beginning to acquire an industrial base. IV  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Communism in the Soviet Union Communism as a concrete social and political system made its first appearance in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the state erected by the victors of the October Revolution in Russia in 1917. Soviet communism took some of the core notions of Marxism to an extreme, realizing them through a tyrannical political structure. Within a decade, the Soviet dictatorship, having eradicated all dissent, unleashed an industrialization drive premised on near-total state control of physical and human resources. Authoritarianism reached its zenith during the long reign of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. The limited reforms undertaken after his death in 1953 did not alter the essential character of communism in the Soviet Union. Destabilized by the far-reaching reforms initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev in the 1980s, the Soviet system disintegrated in 1991.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Roller Coasters

Roller Coasters The main energy transfers that happens as a â€Å"car† travels along the track from the start of the ride to the end. 1. The main energy transfers are between gravitational potential energy (GPE) and kinetic energy (KE), and the eventual decrease of mechanical energy as it transforms into thermal energy. Roller coasters often start as a chain and motor exercises a force on the car to lift it up to the top of a very tall hill.At this height, GPE is at its highest, as we can see through the formula: GPE = mass x gravitational field strength x height (for all physics in relation to Earth, take g to be 10 m/s2 or 10 N/kg) We can see through this formula that as the height increases, so does the GPE, which will then be converted into KE, or kinetic energy. This is the energy that takes place as the â€Å"car† is falling down the hill. This is calculated through the formula: KE = 0. 5 x mass x speed This means that the kinetic energy increases as the speed inc reases, and vice versa. Therefore, this means the higher the kinetic energy, the faster the â€Å"car†.We can actually be extremely specific in terms of this relationship. We know that as the mass doubles, the KE doubles, but as the speed doubles, the KE quadruples. This becomes important when analysing this formula: KE = GPE/0. 5mv2 = mgh 2. A roller coaster ride is a thrilling experience which involves a wealth of physics. Part of the physics of a roller coaster is the physics of work and energy. The ride often begins as a chain and motor (or other mechanical device) exerts a force on the train of cars to lift the train to the top of a vary tall hill.Once the cars are lifted to the top of the hill, gravity takes over and the remainder of the ride is an experience in energy transformation. At the top of the hill, the cars possess a large quantity of potential energy. Potential energy – the energy of vertical position – is dependent upon the mass of the object a nd the height of the object. The car's large quantity of potential energy is due to the fact that they are elevated to a large height above the ground. As the cars descend the first drop they lose much of this potential energy in accord with their loss of height.The cars subsequently gain kinetic energy. Kinetic energy – the energy of motion – is dependent upon the mass of the object and the speed of the object. The train of coaster cars speeds up as they lose height. Thus, their original potential energy (due to their large height) is transformed into kinetic energy (revealed by their high speeds). As the ride continues, the train of cars are continuously losing and gaining height. Each gain in height corresponds to the loss of speed as kinetic energy (due to speed) is transformed into potential energy (due to height).Each loss in height corresponds to a gain of speed as potential energy (due to height) is transformed into kinetic energy (due to speed). Additional not es: GPE = m x g x h       KE = m x v? The main energy transfers that happen as a car travels along the track from the start of the ride to the end: 3. The roller coaster car gains gravitational potential energy (GPE) as it travels to the top. Once over the top, the car gains speed as GPE is transferred to kinetic energy (KE). As it travels to the top of another loop, KE is transferred to GPE.Not all the energy is transferred to or from GPE – some is transferred to the surroundings as heat and sound. All moving objects have kinetic energy, KE. The kinetic energy an object has depends on the mass and speed. If the mass doubles, the KE doubles and if the speed doubles, the KE quadruples. Normally energy is lost through sound and heat (friction, air resistance). 1. http://www. antiessays. com/free-essays/339200. html 2. http://www. physicsclassroom. com/mmedia/energy/ce. cfm 3. http://www. studymode. com/essays/Physics-Roller-Coasters-1535452. htmlHow the HEIGHTS of the hills are designed to allow an empty â€Å"car† to reach the end of the ride. 1. The purpose of the coaster's initial ascent is to build up a sort of reservoir of potential energy. The concept of potential energy, often referred to as energy of position, is very simple: As the coaster gets higher in the air, gravity can pull it down a greater distance. You experience this phenomenon all the time — think about driving your car, riding your bike or pulling your sled to the top of a big hill. The potential energy you build going up the hill can be released as kinetic energy — the energy of motion that takes you down the hill.Once you start cruising down that first hill, gravity takes over and all the built-up potential e ­nergy changes to kinetic energy. Gravity applies a constant downward force on the cars. 2. The hills are designed so that it is low enough that the momentum of the car from the previous drop carries it up and over the hill. This is why the hills are usually lower towards the end of the ride, because the car has lost momentum due to friction and air resistance. Mainly the consecutive hill must be lower as it will not have enough energy because some of it is lost and sound and heat.Therefore, if the car was to reach the end of the ride, the height of the hills must be lower each consecutive time. 1. http://science. howstuffworks. com/engineering/structural/roller-coaster3. htm 2. http://www. studymode. com/essays/Physics-Roller-Coasters-1535452. html How the ENERGY TRANSFERS determines the heights of the hills. The roller coaster train, having travelled down the first drop, now has a load of Kinetic Energy. There are a number of situations that could then take place. Situation 1: Flat Straight Track What a boring roller coaster this would make, but it illustrates a point.If the track after the first drop was completely flat and straight†¦ then the Kinetic Energy would, theoretically, allow the train to continue moving foreve r, as energy does not disapear. In the real world, however, air resistance and friction between the wheels and the track cause the kinetic energy to be converted away, and thus eventually the train will stop. Situation 2: A Hill of Equal Height to the First Drop Another dull coaster, but this one would make the news as it is destined to get stuck. As the train speeds down the first drop, bottoms out and rises up the second hill, the train would roll back.Even though, theoretically, the train has the kinetic energy to get up the same size hill as the first drop, much of this will be lost due to friction and air resistance. As a result, the train would only make it about 3/4 of the way up the second hill before it rolls back down. Situation 3: A Hill of Less Height than the First Drop Now the train will have enough energy to get over the second hill, provided the hill is low enough to take into account the train style and weight, and continue onwards. http://www. coasterforce. com/coa sters/technical-info/physics-of-a-coaster

Sunday, November 10, 2019

How to Adapt Melville’s “Bartleby the Scrivener” for Film

The two existing adaptations of Herman Melville’s short story â€Å"Bartleby the Scrivener,† released in 1970 and 2001, show two legitimate interpretations of this dense, strange story. The 1970 version, starring John McEnrey as Bartleby, elects to prioritize the drabness of Bartleby’s laconic take on life in its color palette and generally dreary atmosphere. The more recent adaptation, starring Crispin Glover in the titular role, is more comic and, in the parlance of our times, â€Å"screwball† in its portrayal of office life.Such an interpretation seems closer to the text for me: while Melville’s story is profoundly sad, this sadness is not a uniform, blanketing affect, falling like Joyce’s snow over the living and the dead, but the failure of even comedy to overcome the characters’ alienation from themselves and each other. Melville’s tale is strange, and as such it calls for a strange adaptation to make it fit on the silver screen. What continues to be amiss in these adaptations is that Melville’s story is about misunderstanding Bartleby, yet both adaptations aim to understand Bartleby.The pathos of the tale, which in its literary form instantiates itself in the relationship between the reader and the text, is lost when a film version purports to offer mimetic verity. The reader of â€Å"Bartleby† is made to feel that she has missed something, that there is some clue to the secret of Bartleby and â€Å"Bartleby† that has been overlooked and which would resolve the pervading feeling of dislocation. In a crude sense, Bartleby represents the very incapacity of language to say what it means to say–that it always says too much and too little, and that even a simple mantra like â€Å"I prefer not to† can become opaque if we look too closely.Any interpretation of â€Å"Bartleby† will fall into this trap to some extent, of offering a definition of what is essentially n ebulous. To circumvent this problem, I propose the same tactic that Melville employs in his framing of â€Å"Bartleby. † Rather than focusing on the titular character, the film should focus on the story’s narrator, the lawyer who will become Bartleby’s boss. After all, what we learn from reading this story is that a name does not tell us who someone is, but misdirects us into the illusion of knowledge.The word â€Å"Bartleby† remains an enigma, and the attached epithet–†the Scrivener†Ã¢â‚¬â€œfurther obscures the â€Å"real† Bartleby that this story invites us to seek. Bartleby’s job as a scrivener is seemingly the least interesting, unique, or existentially relevant fact to know about him, and yet this is what we are misled by the title into defining him by. The narrator, on the other hand, is unnamed throughout. While Bartleby is anomic in the existential sense, he does at least have a name.The narrator, who generally fit s in well with the boring injustice of his socio-economic position, is anomic in that he does not have a name. If â€Å"Bartleby† is in some way a cultural critique, and it is hard not to think so, then this is the man who we should focus on to make him claim a name for himself. Bartleby’s name gives the reader and and people around him a false sense of knowledge of him, as does his identification as â€Å"scrivener†Ã¢â‚¬â€œas if a rote task could actually define him. The weapon of naming should be turned back on the class who is entitled to wield it.Giving a name to the narrator is not the solution to this problem, as that would repress the whole issue of the name. Instead, the film should be framed as an implicit challenge to the narrator to find his name and reveal it, to pick a fixed location in the world of words where he can be found and confronted. (This is similar to the protocol of protesters who ask for police badge numbers so that there is accountabil ity for police actions. ) This need not be an overtly or clumsily militant film.The demand that the narrator name himself cannot be proclaimed literally by the film without adding an additional interlocutor, perhaps the filmmaker as documentarian, and this would only redouble the economy of the shield of namelessness. This would almost be worse, since it would decenter the mechanism of namelessness from the dominant class–where it can at least be located to some extent in the sole nameless character of the narrator–and make it into a roving weapon for all parties vying for power. Rather, we should remember that film can function without gimmickry as a demand for characters to name themselves.The characters in Little Miss Sunshine are all suffering from disparate types of personal flux and the film comes to a conclusion when they are able to define themselves through their relationship as a family. What we have here are actually two forms of social policing that need to be clearly articulated for the purposes of effective translation between literature and film. Literature operates in the domain of words, and so its dominant procedure is naming; film operates in the domain of image (as well as sound, but the eye is the vastly dominant organ for human perception) and its dominant procedure is the gaze.So while Melville’s text puts pressure on the narrator to reveal his name if he truly wants to be Bartleby’s comrade, rather than his patron, we need to switch methods for film adaptation and focus the gaze on the narrator. Simply by looking at him we pose the film question analogous to revealing his name. Appropriately enough, an excellent example of this technique can be found in the television show The Office. The character Michael Scott, a low level manager played by Steve Carell, is shown to be a buffoon just by showing him.With different editing–removing his gaffes, inappropriate pauses and laughter, and the apathetic and un inspired responses of the employees he manages–he could appear to be confident and in control. The persistence of looking determines the difference in social perception. I would support using a camera technique similar to that of The Office in which camera movement between characters often supplants cuts so as to give the effect of the camera belonging to a person in the room.This technique would not be used quite as aggressively as on The Office–characters in my version of â€Å"Bartleby† would not look or speak directly into the camera, nor would there be out of sequence cuts to characters’ interviews or commentary. A mobile camera, both moving between characters during dialogue, and following characters when they are walking, would help to prevent this from becoming a visually boring adaptation (a dangerous temptation for a movie about people stuck inside doing repetitive labor).At the same time, this camera technique would also reveal that this place and this job are boring. Cuts to close-ups obscure the alienation of the figure in his office landscape and falsely re-face persons who professional context de-faces. Coupling this camera technique with the above mentioned preference for showing the narrator and ignoring Bartleby would add an extra layer of visual intrigue, even suspense, as Bartleby would only appear sporadically, incidentally, contingent on his relevance to other characters.Although I would not want to entirely mimic the cinematography of The Office, one thematic element that informs both the style of the television show and my production of â€Å"Bartleby† is the camera as confessional. The demand for a name as the opening for confession creates a stylistic tension: on the one hand, to depict a figure against its ground asks for a wide angle shot that minimizes the proportion of character to environment; on the other hand, the visual poetics of the confession work best when the face of the individual is hi ghly legible.This legibility is one of the oldest criteria of the confession. Without being able to read the face, the veracity of the confession is uncertain; it might be a feint. So when the narrator is interacting with other characters, we would use a wide shot that would pan between them as they took turns speaking, catching Bartleby almost by accident in the marginal, in-between-space, that happens to exist within the zone of the camera’s movement. When the narrator is agonizing over his problematic relationship with Bartleby, the job of the camera is to listen closely and to watch him closely.The internal monologue, the narration as heard/read by the reader, would be performed as spoken monologues that provide dramatic action during the actionless life of the narrator–as he walks the streets of New York or sits at his desk. To reinforce Bartleby’s marginalization, these internal monologues (in Melville’s text) could be performed in Bartleby’s presence to emphasize his non- or quasi-existence. As far as color palette, a unified scheme would help to portray â€Å"Bartleby† as a story about analyzing a single form of consciousness, and hence not guided by the mimetics of realism.Heavy monochromaticism through tinting the film stock is a bit too heavy handed. I think a very light use of a gray-scale filter would be beneficial, but to really capture the horror of â€Å"Bartleby† the muted light and gray-scale lifestyle should be immanent in the mise en scene and costuming. By dressing all the characters and their surroundings in similar colors their alienation is made apparent by the absurdity of them all appearing like chameleons in a colorless environment.Turkey, Ginger Nut, and Nippers, Bartleby’s co-workers, have powerful distinguishing traits that Melville comically exaggerates, and these caricatured personalities appear best against an equally caricatured ground. With everything draped in unending gray, small colorful details could easily mark the personality of these character–as well as marking how ludicrous it is to think that personhood can be signified by the single note characteristics that Melville uses to mark these apart.The soundscape of this film would take after the blurred, mechanically processed effects of Jacques Tati’s Playtime. This would help to take the magic out of Bartleby’s somewhat famous mantra, â€Å"I would prefer not to. † Nothing would be worse than for a fetishist of Melville to be waiting breathlessly for the story’s catch phrase, to construe this refusal of everything (including refusal) as a catchphrase. The narrator does not truly pay attention to Bartleby when he first begins to defer activity because this deferral is virtually unthinkable.In the manner of the Whorf-Sapir hypothesis, refusal to participate in capitalism almost conceptually impossible for the narrator to process. Bartleby’s proclamatio n originates almost entirely out of mind, sight, and hearing. But as the narrator is forced to notice that work is not being done, he and the directionality of the microphones close in on the source of the trouble. Bartleby is saying something very strange: he would prefer not to.In giving attention to Bartleby’s speech it is important to register his words as they occur to/within the consciousness of the narrator. The audio is not supposed to suddenly begin listening to Bartleby as if he is a messianic figure (as he has been construed in the past) but to take note that his deferral has become a (troubling) object of thought for the narrator. The narrator’s responses would always be louder than Bartleby’s words, except when he is repeating them to himself later, fitfully.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Aftershocks Are Not Afterthoughts

Aftershocks Are Not Afterthoughts Aftershocks, those who live through major earthquakes often say, are worse than the main shock in their own way. At least the main shock took them by surprise and was over fairly soon, in less than a minute usually. But with aftershocks, people are stressed already, dealing with disrupted lives and cities. They expect aftershocks at any minute, day or night. When a building is damaged by the main shock, aftershocks can take it down- maybe when youre inside cleaning it up. No wonder Susan Hough, the government seismologist who gets in the news whenever temblors do, calls aftershocks ghosts of earthquakes past. The Duration of Aftershocks I can show you some aftershocks right now: just look at the map of recent earthquakes for the San Simeon area of California. In any given week, there are aftershocks there from the 2003 San Simeon earthquake. And east of Barstow  you can still see a trickle of aftershocks from the October 1999 Hector Mine earthquake. Indeed, some scientists argue that aftershocks may last for centuries in places, like continental interiors, where plate motions that build up stresses in the crust are very slow. This makes intuitive sense, but careful studies using long historical catalogs will need to be done. The Trouble with Aftershocks Two things about aftershocks make them troublesome. First, they arent restricted to the spot where the main shock occurred, but can strike tens of kilometers away- and, say, if a magnitude 7 quake was centered out beyond the suburbs but one of its magnitude 5 aftershocks happened right underneath City Hall, the littler one might be the worse of the two. This was the case with the Christchurch, New Zealand earthquake of September 2010 and its large aftershock five months later. Second, aftershocks dont necessarily get smaller as time passes. They get fewer, but sizable ones can happen long after most of the little ones have ended. In Southern California, this phenomenon aroused so much concern after the Northridge quake of 17 January 1994 that Hough wrote an op-ed piece for the Los Angeles Times on the subject three full years later. Scientific Uses of Aftershocks Aftershocks are scientifically interesting because they are good ways to map the underground fault zone that ruptured in the main shock. (Heres how they look for the cases of Northridge.) In the case of the 28 September 2004 Parkfield quake, you can see that the first hour of aftershocks alone outlines the ruptured zone quite well. Aftershocks are also interesting because theyre fairly well behaved- meaning that they have a detectable pattern, unlike all other quakes. The definition that scientists use for an aftershock is any seismic event occurring within one rupture-zone length of a main shock and within the time it takes for seismicity to fall off to what it was before the main shock. This body of quakes fits three mathematical rules, more or less. The first is the Gutenberg-Richter relation, which says that as you go down one magnitude unit in size, aftershocks increase in number by about ten times. The second is called Baths law, which says that the largest aftershock is, on average, 1.2 magnitude units smaller than the main shock. And finally, Omoris law states that aftershock frequency decreases by roughly the reciprocal of time after the main shock. These numbers differ a bit in different active regions depending on their geology, but theyre close enough for government work as the saying goes. So seismologists can advise the authorities immediately after a large earthquake that a certain area can expect X probabilities of aftershocks of Y sizes for Z period of time. The U.S. Geological Surveys STEP project produces a daily map of California with the current risk of strong aftershocks for the next 24 hours. Thats as good a forecast as we can make, and probably the best possible given that earthquakes are inherently unpredictable. Aftershocks in the Quiet Zones Still to be determined is how much Omoris law varies beyond active tectonic settings. Large earthquakes are rare away from plate boundary zones, but a 2000 paper in Seismological Research Letters by John Ebel showed that aftershocks of these intra-plate earthquakes could last for several centuries. One of those was the 1663 Charlevoix, Quebec, earthquake; another was the 1356 earthquake in Basel, Switzerland. In the American Midwest, those would be prehistoric events. In 2009 Seth Stein and Mian Liu argued in Nature that these quiet settings seem to slow everything down, with stress increasing slowly and aftershock sequences lasting longer. They also noted that where the historical record is short, such as in the United States, it may be a mistake to judge the degree of earthquake hazard from events that are actually aftershocks rather than background seismicity. This knowledge may not help you cope with your nerves if you live in an aftershock zone. But it does give you some guidelines as to how bad things will be. And more concretely, it can help engineers judge how probable it is that your new building will be hit by significant aftershocks over the next few years and plan accordingly. PS: Susan Hough and her colleague Lucy Jones wrote an article on this subject for Eos, the house journal for the American Geophysical Union, in November 1997. The U.S. Geological Survey scientists closed by saying that we would like to propose that the phrase just an aftershock be hereafter banned from the English language. Tell your neighbors.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Comparative Industrial Relations Essays

Comparative Industrial Relations Essays Comparative Industrial Relations Essay Comparative Industrial Relations Essay This essay will explain the location and extent of collective and individual bargaining in USA and Britain and distinguish difference and similarity between in these two countries. At the start of this essay, it will explain what is the collective bargaining and individual bargaining. Then it will introduce how the collective bargaining and individual bargaining to operate in each countries, it contains the how it works and where it takes place. Lastly it will do a comparative analysis between those two countries in the field of collective and individual bargaining. It will distinguish from the similarities and differences in USA and UK. Body of essay There are some different definitions of collective and individual bargaining. Collective bargaining as the principal which influence on union behaviour; European communities shows that collective bargaining as voluntary negotiations among employers or employers organization, with a view to the regulation of terms and conditions by collective agreement (Wailes ,2004). Collective bargaining is a rule which make process based on decisions between independent organizations; Collective bargaining consist of negotiations between an employer and a group of employees to determine the conditions of employment (comell law school, 2006). Therefore, collective bargaining consist of the process of negation between union and employers in respect of the terms and conditions of employment of employees such as wages, hours of work, working conditions and the right and responsibilities of TU. Basically, individual bargaining is same as collective bargaining. However, collective bargaining is relation of group of employees and employers while individual bargaining is the relation of one employee between employers. Burgess (1996, p31) makes clear that individual bargaining is an agreement which concluded one employees organizations and one employer determine employment relations between employers and employees with a company activity; Individual bargaining is negotiations between a single employee and his employer. Individual bargaining gives the employer much greater strength than collective bargaining where the employer must deal with the employees as a group; it is the conditions that are to be fair and reasonable which employees will accept and employers will give in contracts of service (the age 150th, 1907). There are some information about the extent and location of collective and individual bargaining in the UK. Burgess (1996, pp333-335) claims that the trade union in the UK is freedom association. Employees have the right to join or not join a trade union and they have future right to take part in the activities of a union at an appropriate time. The UK has strongly rooted in workplace organization. The right of trade union is quite low and strike funds are usually small. Workplace representatives are off work at reasonable time, paid by the employer and to carry out their functions. Moreover, in the agreement there are only a few hours a week and this agreement is often informal (Burgess, 1996, p336). Between the signatories collective agreement is not legally enforceable unless they expressly state. There are two levels of bargaining in the UK. One is local bargaining another is national bargaining. Visser (1996, pp67-69) points out that expect pay and hours the local bargaining was basically administrative and monitoring activity which compare to national agreement. In British much narrow scope of the national agreement while the local bargainers had more informal negotiations issues such as job demarcation and staff levels. In the UK the bargaining power of the workers was increased year by year. On the other hand, the national agreement is minimum norms for wages and working hours, as well as the rule that concern procedures of conflict. They were more and more frequently supplemented by informal shopfloor negotiations between local managers and shop stewards. In the UK the pay determination has always been decentralized. In addition, some industrials keep national agreement on non-pay such as annual holiday entitlement or premium payments for shift work. As for white collar grades, under collective bargaining pay systems based wholly or partly in individual performance with the widespread adoption. However, in public sector collective bargaining is much more entrenched (Burgess, 1996, pp350-359). The primary means of addressing American workers needs is through individual bargaining due to the decline of unions and the renewed focus on individual rights has led the United States Congress and state legislatures to rely increasingly on specific statutory rights. In contrast to other industrialized countries, two facets of the system of individual contract rights in the United States stand out as truly exceptionalthe employment at-will doctrine and reliance in individual employment contracts for the provision of health insurance. In the evolution of these doctrines, United States constitutional protections have played an important, but merely supporting role in establishing a strong legal environment for the presumption of freedom of contract. State and federal statutes have also played a largely supporting role in the development of both the employment-at-will doctrine and health insurance provisions providing either some specific prohibitions against discharge or prescribing certain forms and protections for employee health benefits if offered by the employer. But its advantage and disadvantage of individual bargaining are obvious in the US. Individual bargaining can provide the most individualized solution of meeting the needs of the parties. It also enjoys relatively low administrative costs. Unfortunately, market failures and lack of bargaining power mean that individual bargaining often results in an impoverished solution for many workers that fails to address many of their basic needs.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

College course appeal letter Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

College course appeal letter - Assignment Example Time wastage is another reason why I feel that this course should be transferred. At the current state, I will be required to dedicate a lot of time attending classes, doing assignments and other projects required under Course 123 that I did under Course ABC. I therefore believe that redoing this course will be a duplication of efforts and I could spend the time on other course units and related activities such as academic research. In addition, the university ought to acknowledge a credential course certificate from another university and further approve the transfer of such a course for any student. Lastly, the university should allow for the transfer of this course because I not only completed it but also passed and having to repeat it will be a demoralizing experience for me. I hope you will give me the chance to have the course transferred. Thank you for considering this

Friday, November 1, 2019

Targeted Media and Audience Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Targeted Media and Audience - Essay Example It will contain information that is relevant to the press release’s content such as the five W’s (where, who, why, what, when). This paragraph will simply summarize the press release, and provide a hook that appeal to the audience. Body This part will expand on the hook provided in the lead paragraph. It will employ inverted pyramid strategy where the most relevant information and quotes will be provided in the first paragraphs, and less weighty quotes provided in the subsequent paragraphs (American Institute of Architects, 2008 p56). Company Boilerplate This paragraph will provide brief information about Le Tour de Sandwich, including its activities, short history, products and services. Contact Information Name, Title, Phone, Email. Targeted Media and Audience Targeted Media and Audience The targeted audience for the bicycle tour ranges from ages 10 to 80 years. This means that the market is quite large and a detailed press release is required when targeting these cus tomers. It is necessary to prioritize enthusiastic riders more than any other group because they already have more than two rides, and the likelihood that they will register to participate, in the cycling tour, is high (Guffey, 2007 p83). Pro Tour Riders also set the pace for participants who will prefer riding at some considerable speeds. The other major groups to target are teenagers and the old people. Most of the old people will register and join other riders with the aim of exercising and keeping fit. (Stanton, 2007 p122). It is, therefore, apparent that they will turn out, in large numbers, more than other age groups, and register with British Cycling Association. Teenagers, by being the most active group, will highly be willing to participate, in this event. Therefore, it is important to include activities and refreshments they like, during the cycling event (Stanton, 2007 p123). Other people usually prefer participating, in the cycling event as groups. It is, therefore, nece ssary to mention, in the press release that groups such as schools, church organizations, clubs, and other cycling groups are highly considered, in this event. They can come with their own rides, or they can use the event’s rides. Additionally, there are a number of activities that they can participate in (Heath, 2004 p75). Le Tour de Sandwich press release will target a number of media houses both in and outside France. We will primarily target media stations and individual journalists, editor in chiefs, editors, editorial assistants, staff writers, cycling correspondents, bloggers,