Friday, December 27, 2019

The Role Of Culture And International Marketing - 2059 Words

â€Å"As no two cultures or two individuals are quite alike, the cultural differences and potential incompatibilities that the interactants bring to a specific encounter can add complexity to the counseling experience.†.which is said by Carmella H. Woll(1996). As is widely known that the culture play a very important role in people’s lives, such as that the way of thinking and doing are all related to the culture. According to what Hofstede found that the different culture and social background will make people’s behavior and thinking mode be different. It is illustrated that the marketing is a societal process,which means that the individuals and groups in different countries gain the things what they need and want through the methods of freely exchanging products and services of value with each other (Ringold and Weitz, 2007).As a result, a company that want to enter in a foreign market must be emphasis on the native culture. This essay will discuss what role c ulture plays in the international market. 2.Definition of Culture and international marketing It is noted by Hans Kjetil Lysgard(2012) that the definition of culture are highly contested in the public debate. It is known that culture is a wide concept. Some cultures are formed though a long time, such as some ancient civilization. Different life experience came down generation after generation. This is one of the methods how the cultures formed. Different religions are also have its own culture. It is known that a cultureShow MoreRelatedEssay on Model questions for Global Marketing1523 Words   |  7 Pagesquestions for Global Marketing Outline and discuss the principal causal factors that encourage firms to undertake the international marketing of their products and services. Cultural and political forces influence international marketing activity. Discuss the impact of these forces and illustrate your answers with examples. â€Å"The global competitor will seek to standardise his offering everywhere† (Levitt). Critically evaluate this view with specific reference to a firm’s international product/serviceRead MoreEssay on Cultural Influences Of Consumer Behavior1300 Words   |  6 PagesBehavior Understanding consumer buying behavior entails marketing, relationships, and consumer behavior. Consumer behavior comprises all the consumer decisions and activities connected with the choosing, buying, using and disposing of goods and services. Marketers must pay very close attention to consumer behavior that occurs before the purchase and after the particular product has been used. Studying consumer habits is one of the steps in marketing search and analysis. In addition to other basic principlesRead MoreInternational Marketing Research Methodologies and Design1251 Words   |  5 PagesInternational Marketing Research Methodologies and Design International marketing opens a new avenue for a company to grow as well as face with pending challenges of competition (Craig Douglas, 2005). Overreliance on the domestic market compromises a company potential at the onset of new cultures and expansion of competing companies in the domestic turf (Malhotra, 2004). With this in mind, it is recommended that a company XYZ Inc. should consider expanding its market outreach by venturing inRead MoreMarketing Principles Of International Marketing1391 Words   |  6 Pagesplenty of international marketing principles and knew that international environments are quite different from countries to countries. Each market you enter is different, and what works in one country or region will not work in another. As technology creates leaps in communication and transportation, the world continues to feel smaller and smaller. It is not that hard for companies and consumers to conduct business in almost any country around the world thanks to advances in international trade, andRead MoreCultural Influences of Consumer Behavior Essay examples1291 Words   |  6 PagesBehavior Understanding consumer buying behavior entails marketing, relationships, and consumer behavior. Consumer behavior comprises all the consumer decisions and activities connected with the choosing, buying, using and disposing of goods and services. Marketers must pay very close attention to consumer behavior that occurs before the purchase and after the particular product has been used. Studying consumer habits is one of the steps in marketing search and analysis. In addition to other basic principlesRead MoreThe Impact Of Culture On International Marketing Communication1486 Words   |  6 Pagescultural factors occurring in marketing communications. Therefore, it discusses the following: †¢ Key issues in cross-cultural marketing communication which shows identifying the cultural factors to support marketing communication in the proposed markets and pre-requisites for cross-cultural communication. †¢ Culture-related barriers to marketing and how to approach this issue in order to achieve success in international markets. †¢ Effects of culture on international marketing communication and the needRead MoreThe Roles of Culture, Subculture, and Social Class in Consumer Behavior1215 Words   |  5 PagesPrinciples of Marketing The Roles of Culture, Subculture and Social Class in Consumer Behavior Introduction The depth and variety of global expansion strategies today is accelerating rapidly as companies historically who have been highly effective in marketing, selling and service look to new nations to continue growing sales and profits. The roles of culture, subcultures and social classes serve as the framework for gaining new access into foreign markets. The effect of cultural distancesRead MoreDeveloping The Right Marketing Strategy1313 Words   |  6 Pages Developing the right marketing strategy is critical to ensuring an organization’s brand, image, and profitability are maximized in an international marketplace. There are various forms of markets, a global market and a regional market. This document will compare and contrast globalization and regionalization. It will highlight if these two markets are the same or different. In addition, the role of an international marketer to develop marketing strategies in a regional or global market willRead MoreInternational Marketi ng Essay926 Words   |  4 PagesIDISCUSSION QUESTIONS Chapter 1: 1. To what extent is a global approach to international marketing appropriate to firms in the Asia-Pacific? Global approaches are not always relevant to firms in the Asia-Pacific apart from alerting them to the nature of the international competitive environment in which they are likely to operate. A global approach is not an operating strategy for Indigenous small and medium scale exporters (SMEs) and is only partially appropriate for local subsidiaries ofRead MoreHarley Davidson Case Analysis1201 Words   |  5 Pagesfollow up with any/all changes in the structure. 3. Is the present structure consistent with current corporate objectives, strategies, policies, and programs, as well as with the firm’s international operations? Yes. The corporation’s strategies, policies, programs, and the international operations corresponds to Harley Davidson’s present geographic area structure. 4. In what ways does this structure compare with those of similar corporation? We can compare

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

How Socialization Is Defined As The Process Of Learning...

Socialization is defined as the process of learning and internalizing the values, beliefs, and norms of our own social group. As a result of socialization, one then becomes a functioning member of society. Family is one of the groups that provide structured situations where socialization occurs. Family is the main agent of socialization where language, values, and gender roles are first learned. The Census Bureau defines family as two or more individuals related by blood, marriage, or adoption living in one household. However, sociologists have defined family as a social group whose members are legally bound, biological, emotional ties, or all three. The family structure is present in all societies, but varies in all societies. Religion is another popular social group that dates back several years. According to the Pew Forum, the Census Bureau’s director during the 1950s (Vincent P. Barabba) decided to eliminate the question of religion out of fear that its inclusion would lead to controversy over the separation of state and church. Later that year, Congress passed a law stating that mandatory questions of religion were banned. Though, sociologists define religion as any institutionalized system of shared beliefs and rituals that identify a relationship between the sacred and profane. (The Real World: An Introduction to Sociology, p. 302) The previous definitions of family and religion were socially constructed. When people consider the family unit, they immediately think ofShow MoreRelatedGender Socialization : The Real World1442 Words   |  6 PagesGender Socialization When someone is pregnant, people will usually ask for the sex of the unborn child thus proving that people are socially categorized from the beginning of life and is something that is continued throughout life. One is expected to behave the way their assigned gender is supposed to behave. Gender socialization is when people are expected to act a certain way based on their â€Å"gender†. Through the following agents: family, schools, peers, and media, gender socialization is emphasizedRead MoreSocialization Is A Process Of Learning1950 Words   |  8 PagesSocialization is a process of learning and internalizing certain norms and values of one’s society so that one can function as the participant of that society. Every society has their own accepted roles, beliefs, language, accepted values, norms, skills and many other essential patterns of thought and certain actions which only through the process of socialization one can learn and behave in a way that is acceptab le in a society. The process of socialization begins from the first breath of an individualRead MoreEating Disorders : Eating Disorder2461 Words   |  10 PagesNervosa and Bulimia were not accepted as diseases until 1980 they had still been charted throughout history from all over the world. Anorexia Nervosa Of all mental illnesses, anorexia nervosa has been found to be the most fatal. Anorexia Nervosa is defined as â€Å"the refusal of an emaciated individual to maintain a normal body weight† (Encyclopedia Britannica). Usually this means that the person weighs no more than 85% of what is considered normal for their body weight. Anorexia is a very dangerous diseaseRead MoreTracing Theoretical Approaches to Crime and Social Control: from Functionalism to Postmodernism16559 Words   |  67 PagesMany individuals played an important role in the production of this thesis, and I would like to take this opportunity to note my heartfelt appreciation. First, I am indebted in particular to my entire family; most importantly, Mom; every path I have taken has been to make you proud, and I hope to fulfill your dreams through my shoes. I would also like to thank my sister Michelina, Joel, Dad, Nanny, Ken Jarret, Uncle Ian Aunt Kari, my guardian angel Thomas, Gran my late Grampy–without yourRead MoreStarbucks Business Plan31663 Words   |  127 PagesExpansion of the coffee shop chains in Denmark 30 4.1.1 Screening process for expanding a coffee shop s chains business in Denmark 30 4.2 Identify basic appeal 33 4.3 Environmental analysis 33 4.3.1 Macroenvironment 34 4.3.2 Microenvironment 38 Customers 38 Segmenting consumer markets 40 Defining market segmentation 40 Reasons for segmenting the market 41 How to segment the Danish coffee shop chain industry market 41

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Troubled Asset Relief Program free essay sample

When assessing the values of the proposed legislation, lawmakers knew that the bill was going to be very complex in that it is dealing with very difficult issues. The public was assured that much time and effort had gone into assessing these issues such as: â€Å"†¦fairness and equity, banking regulation, executive pay, job losses†¦moral hazard, 401(k) values, and the proper role of the state (Couch, Foster, Malone, Black, 2011). †After all things considered, it was realized that the motivation behind most cast votes was hardly as complicated as expected. In actuality, it was quite simple (Couch, Foster, Malone, Black, 2011). In November 2008, Secretary of the Treasury Henry Paulson indicated that stimulating the market for consumer credit would be a major priority in the second allocation. December 2008, President Bush used executive authority to declare that funds from the TARP program be spent any way Secretary of Treasury Henry Paulson deemed necessary to ease the financial burden. Mid January 2009, Paulson issued temporary rules for reporting and record keeping requirements under the executive compensation standards of the Capital Purchase Program. Paulson also announced a new set of guidelines disclosing conflicts of interest with TARP contracts. The Senate accepted the changes to TARP that regulated firms from paying out bonuses with TARP funding. Christopher Dodd of Connecticut proposed this amendment to the economic stimulus act. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac was nationalized by the Federal Reserve and Treasury department, the world’s largest insurance company, AIG, was bailed out. This alone extended the insurance deposit to $3. 4 trillion dollars in money market funds for the government. Levinson, 2009) Then Paulson set out for the largest government save in history by buying out $700 billion dollars of contaminated securities from troubled banks. In Paulson’s original 3 page plan, Wall Street would have had uncontrolled access to public revenues at very little cost (Levinson, 2009). The original version was rejected by the House and then modified by the Senate (Levinson, 2009). Banks that were not in desperate need could make loans and supply liquidity was to get TARP funding. OneUnited Bank did not meet the requirement to receive the TARP funds. The bank was in trouble financially but was involved with two major legislators: Congressman Barney Frank from Massachusetts and Congresswoman Maxine Waters from California. These two served on the House Financial Service Committee as chairman and the third highest Democrat in seniority respectively. Waters husband at one point was a director at the bank. Waters had made investments with the bank and her husband had owned stock in the firm (Schmidt, 2009). Waters called the Treasury Department on behalf of OneUnited and the bank received $ 12 million in funds from TARP. This was made possible by a special provision written into the bailout. Wall Street Journal reporter Susan Schmidt explained, A provision designed to aid OneUnited was written into the federal bailout legislation by Mr. Frank, who is chairman of the financial services panel. Mr. Frank said he inserted the provision to help the only African-American owned bank in his home state (Schmidt 2009). The American financial system had changed over the last decade. Wall Street, an independent investment bank that relied on high leverage, is no more. Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc, what used to be the fourth largest investment bank in the United States has went bankrupt. On September 15, 2008 Lehman Brothers filed Chapter 11. This was caused by a massive exit of a large portion of its clients, major loss in stock, and depreciation of assets by credit rating agencies. Barclay agreed to purchase Lehman’s North American banking and trading divisions, along with the headquarters building in New York. All other Lehman Brothers franchise’s was bought out as well by Nomura Holdings (Levinson, 2009). An automobile task force was formed by President Obama that was chaired by Treasury Secretary Tim Geithner and Larry Summers. Members of this newly created task force included: Secretaries of Transportation, Commerce, Labor, Energy, the director of the Office of Management and Budget, the administrator of the EPA, the director of the White House Office of Energy and Climate Change and lastly the chair of the Council of Economic Advisors. Stephen Rattner was selected to head the team (Shepardson and Trowbridge, 2009). Chrysler and GM were instructed to submit plans of restructuring to the group for approval. Rattner recognized the complication of the task and also that his team was inexperienced in the automobile industry. He said, â€Å"We’ve learned a lot about how car dealers work, and how companies get paid when they sell a car to a dealer, and why there are a certain number of dealers more than are optimal† (qtd. in King and Stoll 2009). Obama seemed pleased with the progress the group he created was making. In a radio interview Obama criticized Bush and his actions but praised his own efforts. Obama made reference to not just writing GM and Chrysler a blank check but holding these companies accountable for the funds they received. The task force had rejected the initial plan that Chrysler had submitted but accepted its revised plan. Chrysler filed Chapter 11 and as a condition closed 789 of its dealerships. A list of dealers that was subject to closure was sent out to all dealerships with a messaging stating: â€Å"With regret, this letter is to inform you that on May 14, 2009, we are filing a motion in bankruptcy court rejecting the Sales and Service Agreement (s) between Chrysler Motors LLC and the dealerships listed above† (qtd. n Valdez-Dapena 2009). Company officials realized that the decision to close dealerships, in particular those with franchises, was difficult but needed. The vice chair said at the time it was the most difficult decision in business that he had ever made. The criteria used to determine which dealerships was to be closed was never made clea r. The process was suppose to be a function of the numbers, data driven matrix assessed with a number of key metrics is the terminology used by Steven Landry, executive vice president (Shepardson and Trowbridge 2009). Dealerships owned by McLarty-Landers-Johnson were not closed even though they did not meet Chrysler’s performance data. Robert Johnson, former owner of Black Entertainment Television, is one of the firms owners and a major contributor to the Democratic Party. Mack McLarty, a former aide to Bill Clinton, is another owner. After this was brought to the public eye, accusations were being made that dealerships owned by individuals with ties to the Republican Party was becoming targets and would be closed (Shepardson and Trowbridge 2009). The Treasury Department made statements that the federal government had not played a role in which dealerships were set for closure. Chrysler officials made claim that it became clear that there was no wisdom in closing twenty five percent of its dealers and that it really was not their decision. Officials made reference that they were under pressure from the Obama task force (Shepardson and Trowbridge 2009). It is well known that most everything surrenders to pressure or political pressure to be more specific. Bureaus and agencies are no exception. Examples of such surrender have been noticed in IRS audits and enforcement activity, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Environmental Protection Agency and by antitrust authorities. The noted influence of politics dates back to the Vietnam War (Couch, 2011). â€Å"Public-choice theory asserts that politicians are motivated by a desire for reelection and that this desire shapes which policies are pursued and how they are implemented (Couch, 2011). As a result of this desire to please voters, governmental policy goals are misguided. Their purpose is not to find a solution but instead to build a forum in which to base their next winning election. Other examples of political pressure include things such as Obama’s automobile task force, and governmental branches. â€Å"In short, politics trumps economics† (Couch, 2011). An investigation of the Chrysler dealership closing was done for the percentage of votes cast for Obama in each state. Electoral votes at state level and the number of congress persons in the House of Representatives for the dealerships district was used as additional measures for political influence (Couch, 2011). Also factored are the individual dealership characteristics, like profitability and level of customer service. If a dealership was located in a highly depressed area with high unemployment rates it would more than likely be closed (Couch, 2011). When all the facts had been put together it was evident that dealerships offering political support for Obama would remain open. This evidence was gathered at both state-level and dealership-lever. This would suggest that the Obama administration was more than just concerned with the long-term success of Chrysler, but was most concerned with protecting the Obama supporters from negative consequences (Couch, 2011). The US Treasury Department to buy preferred stock with funds from TARP within approved institutions earning a 5% dividend for the government. The plan was to stimulate the economy by making the right hand side of the balance sheet of the institution be matched with increased bank business loans. The institutions were being pressured by regulators to not increase or to reduce the liabilities of the assets. The economy in the United States has improved since the TARP was employed. The 2010 fourth quarter GDP had a 2. 8% growth (Gabby, 2011). The financial markets are signaling progress in the economy: â€Å"Between March 31, 2009 and March 31, 2011, the Dow Jones Industrial Average rose approximately 62% from 7,609 to 12,320 and for the four largest banks JP Morgan Chase, Bank of America, Wells Fargo, and Citigroup their March 31, 2011 vs. March 30, 2009 share prices were: $46. 10 vs. 24. 85 (+86%); $13. 33 vs. $6. 03 (+121%); $31. 71 vs. $13. 37 (+137%); and $4. 42 vs. $2. 31(+91%); respectively† (Gaby, 2011). The United States four largest banks had a combined total of $4. 8 trillion in assets as of March 31, 2009. If these four had failed the loss to tax payers would have been in excess of $2 trillion. TARP injected $239. 5 billion into roughly 35 financial institu tions and 23 of the institutions earned a 5% dividend. By the end of the October 2010 78% of the TARP funds had been repaid. If interest and dividends are included the percentage rises to 102% (Gabby, 2010). If the smallest of the four largest banks had failed there could have been theatrical to the US banking system and could have had global impacts as well. A modest benefit of the program was that CIT was able to continue lending to small firms during the bankruptcy filing and reorganization. The TARP provided brief support the US banking system and the global financial system. The modern administration has veered from the Constitution. The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 created the Troubled Asset Relief Program. This was going to strip 200 pages of pork, tax preferences, and various oversights. Section 101 authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to purchase troubled assets from any financial institution, on such terms and conditions as are determined by the Secretary† (Lawson, 2010). Troubled Asset Relief Program is a constitutional mess; many of the issues with it are common with the current administrative state. Congress did not have the power to enact the program. It violated the non-delegation doctrine. Both the President and Congress may have violated the Appointment Clause during the enactment of the program. Bush also exceeded his constitutional executive power when he implemented TARP (Lawson, 2010). The major issue with TARP is that there is no Troubled Assets clause in the Constitution. There are other clauses like the Bankruptcy Clause, Copyright Clause but not a clause authorizing the Congress to give power to the government to become a mortgage broker. Government buying mortgages and securities backed by mortgages in not a guideline of commerce with foreign countries (Lawson, 2010) The ability to spend in the Constitution comes from the Necessary and Proper Clause: appropriations of funds are laws necessary and proper for carrying into Execution other federal powers. But in the context of Troubled Asset Relief Program, one has to find some detailed power that is suitable to buy mortgages that can necessarily and properly carry into execution. The entire TARP venture was unconstitutional from the start (Lawson, 2010). We can look back on the financial situation and try to determine the central problem; global imbalances of savings or imports and exports, the Fed’s low rates, a housing bubble, subprime mortgages was not really the issue. In September 2008, the signature event of this financial crisis came to light. Short-term credit became frozen, inter-banking lending was froze as well as commercial paper markets. If panic had not occurred it is likely that economic contraction after the housing burst would have been no worse than a mild recession (Cochrane, 2009). The most current recession comes from the banking system not lending money and the normal way of doing business is almost extinct. The short-term credit crunch has ended. The recession now seems to be moving into recovery (Cochrane, 2009). Neil Barofsky, the special inspector general for TARP, told the Center for Public Integrity that his office conducted 142 ongoing criminal and civil investigations. Over the past 2 years the SIGTARP has recovered approximately $152 million in stolen assets. The agency has also saved another $555 million through prevention of fraud. The office investigated the potential of fraudulent use of TARP funds at 64 financial institutes, from small banks to large banks (Hallman, 2011). Barofsky’s most prominent investigation has led to civil securities fraud charges last year against Bank of America Corp. ormer chief executive officer Ken Lewis. The charges were for not disclosing major losses at Merrill Lynch to shareholders. The complaints allege that the bank and its officers hid losses at Merrill in order to complete the 2008 merger of the two institutions, and that the defendants also lied to the government to obtain tens of millions of dollars in TARP funds (Hallman, 2011). From a business manager’s view a program like TARP allows for a company to be ran as poorly as possible and still stay in business. Programs like TARP allow for companies to be irresponsible and very loose with their money. In some cases TARP would allow a company to file Chapter 11 but still continue to function on a daily basis. To a business manager this would benefit him under many circumstances and allow for big bonus money to be paid out to upper management even if the company is not as profitable as it once was. Bailouts like the TARP allows for bad business practices to continue and managers to continue allow it. References Couch, J. F. , Burton, P. A. , Malone, K. D. , amp; Black, D. L. (2011). Government behind the wheel more a Matter of politics than of economics.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

SecondHand Smoke Essays - Smoking, Passive Smoking, Tobacco, Tar

econdhand Smoke, Is It a Hazard? In the 1950's and 60's scientists gave the people a lot of evidence on the deadly effects of smoking where the tobacco companies on the other hand tried to put the doubt in people?s minds through the campaigns to show that it is not all true. By the time people actually decided to take care of their health and finally saw how life-threatening smoking could be by real life examples, the tobacco companies already got rich from its sales. Nowadays, nobody doubts that ?firsthand? smoke is deadly to your health and it causes lung cancer and heart disease in adults and asthma and bronchitis in children. Now the industry is onto the secondhand smoke. Scientists and researchers are representing a lot of evidence and research that has been done throughout the years showing that the secondhand smoke can also cause a lung cancer in nonsmokers. The study has been done of people who have been long exposed to secondhand smoke and it shows that 26 out of 33 publishe d studies indicate a link between secondhand smoke and lung cancer. The study estimates that the people that were breathing secondhand smoke were 8 to 150 percent more likely to get lung cancer. The tobacco companies are trying to argue the facts and are still in serious debate about the health hazards of breathing a secondhand smoke. A lot of anti-smoking organizations are trying to turn smoking in public into a private activity that does not have to involve nonsmokers breathing secondhand smoke. What is even more important is that many of these organizations convinced a lot of smokers to cut back or quit completely. The problem of secondhand smoke is increasing because it is so common in our society. It makes secondhand smoke the third-ranking cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers. Mothers who live with a smoking spouse have to realize the ill effects of secondhand smoke on children even before they are born. The smoking components reach the developing fetus through the mother. In fants that are born in a smoking environment weigh less and have a weaker chance of becoming a fully developed child. Secondhand smoke leads to blood clots and damages arterial linings which are the two most leading factors in the development of heart disease. The tobacco companies got scared of the effect that the secondhand smoke research can do to the cigarette makers. The tobacco companies started their own secret studies on how to fight the growing success of antismoking activists. They are trying to show the people that there is no definite evidence to prove that the secondhand smoke can cause lung cancer or any other diseases that the scientists accuse it of. The tobacco industry is trying to influence the science by commissioning a research from sympathetic scientists and sponsoring scientific meetings where they try to carefully bring out their point of view and publish the results in the medical literature. Only 4 percent of the articles that were published from the meetin gs that were sponsored by the tobacco industry said that the secondhand smoke was unhealthy. The debate on secondhand smoke h'as reached the boiling point. When different scientists are using different study designs and different researches and still come up with the same result, it is time to start paying more serious attention to secondhand smoke. When the human evidence is combined with the laboratory experiments showing that the secondhand smoke can cause cancer it is impossible to ignore it any longer. The nonsmokers should have the right to breathe smoke-free air. It is important to have restrictions on where people are allowed to smoke and in particular to keep the work place as a smoke-free environment. The declining rates of smoking show that people can actually quit. Everybody should make an effort to quit for the sake of the people they love. econdhand Smoke, Is It a Hazard? In the 1950's and 60's scientists gave the people a lot of evidence on the deadly effects of smoki ng where the tobacco companies on the other hand tried to put the doubt in people?s minds through the campaigns to show that it is not all true. By the time